Facts about DNA Chromosomes and Genes

DNA, Chromosomes and Genes are some fascinating words of biology. Talking about these words gives most of us a feeling of being a scientific person. But the truth is that most of us just study these words during the school days and never know much about them. Here we will tell you some facts about DNA, Chromosomes and Genes that will enlighten you and make you understand the complexity of human body.

  • There are 30 trillion human cells in the body of an average human being. Out of them 84% are RBC (Red Blood Cells).
  • There are 210 different types of cells present in our body. Each type of cells has their own function.
  • Each cell in our body has got a nucleus. There are 23 pairs of Chromosomes in each Nucleus.
  • 22 Pairs of chromosomes are called "autosomes", while the 23rd pair is sex chromosome which is responsible for our gender.
  • In each pair of chromosome, one comes from father and one comes from mother.
  • Chromosomes are differentiated by their size. The number provided to them is based on their size in descending pattern. 
  • Each chromosome has got a DNA inside it, which is a double helix structure.
  • If we unfold the DNA in a single cell and lay it straight then it would be around 2 meters in length.
  • DNA is made up of two backbones and a series of bridges. It gives a look of spiral ladder when seen under a microscope.
  • The backbone of DNA is made up of phosphate and deoxyribose, while the bridges are long thin molecules called nucleotides. There are four different types of nucleotides: adenine (A) , thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These nucleotides are found in pairs and thus known as "base pairs".
  • Only a certain set of nucleotides can make base pairs. A connects with T only and G connects with C only. 
  • A DNA molecule thus contain a number of base pairs in different patterns. It can form millions of patterns.
  • A small set of pattern of nucleotides inside the DNA makes a single Gene. The number of genes inside a DNA depends on the size of chromosome and DNA. According to an estimate by Genome Project there are 20 to 25 thousand genes in each cell. 
Do u know that 
  • Each gene is responsible for some feature of our body. Genes are even responsible for our emotions, diseases and physical capabilities.
  • The genes inside a cell is the software program, which makes the cell (the hardware) develop the protein coded in form of gene.
  • All genes are not active in each type of cell. Only a few set of genes are active in each type of cell which allows it to produce a specific set of proteins and it is known as gene expression.
  • The function of a cell depends on the Gene Expression in that cell, which gives it the shape and functionality.
  • There are 3 billion base pairs in each cell and if we write their code in book then it would need 262,000 pages. Only 500 pages in that book would be unique to a person.
  • 99.9 percent of DNA is same in all humans. Only 0.1 percent makes the difference in our personality, looks, intelligence.
  • Human DNA matches 96% with Chimpanzee , but that 4% makes a lot of difference. Cats and humans are 90% similar genetically. Domestic Cattle are 80% genetically similar to humans. Surprising fact is that Banana and humans have 60% similar DNA.
  • The number of chromosomes found in a species don't tell anything about their superiority. Chromosome count vary from 10 to 250 among different species. Humans have got just 46, but ruling the whole planet.
Please share your views on what you think about the above facts. We will publish your views in the comments section below.

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