Showing posts with label Our Body. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Our Body. Show all posts

Adrenaline hormone effect on Body and Side Effects of Overdose

Adrenaline is a hormone and neurotransmitter which is produced in adrenal glands and some neurons of the central nervous system. Effect of adrenaline depends on the type of cell it is acting upon. Usually it prepares body for "fight or flight" mechanism and released only when the body is under acute stress. Sudden release (or initial rush) of adrenaline makes you feel empowered, just like you can conquer the world. Similarly when the level of adrenaline goes down (adrenaline crash), the person may feel anxious or even negative.

How does Adrenaline prepares our body for extremities ?
As soon as adrenaline is released, our physical ability increases temporarily. It does so by making following changes in body.

  • It increases heart rate and blood pressure.
  • Expands air passages of lungs to deliver more oxygen to body at a faster rate.
  • Maximizes blood glucose and primarily provide it to brain for quicker function.
  • Deliver blood to muscles to make them ready for any physical event.
  • Pupil of the eye is enlarged.

How much time does our body take to release adrenaline ?
It takes 2 to 3 minutes of stress for our body to release adrenaline. As soon as condition becomes normal, the adrenaline release is stopped by body.

Why does overproduction of adrenaline occur in some people ?

  • Stress is the primary reason for adrenaline production, but if some body faces physical stress in daily daily life then it is possible to get affected by over production of adrenaline.
  • Obesity and untreated obstructive sleep apnea can make a person prone to over release of adrenaline as the person struggles to breath every night and body takes it as a stress.
  • Sometimes an adrenal tumor located outside adrenal gland along the nerves that run through chest and abdomen can release excess adrenaline.

Adrenaline usage as medication

  • It is used to treat severe allergic reactions. People with history of severe allergic reactions keep adrenaline injection handy for any sudden use.
  • Adrenalin is also used to treat severe low blood pressure, wheezing, severe skin itching.
  • It is used as a intramuscular injection, which is given on skin or muscle of your outer thigh.
  • Effect of adrenaline injection occurs within 2 to 3 minutes and then fades away within 20 minutes. So further treatment is always necessary, even if you have taken it in case of some emergency.

Adrenaline Overdose Side Effects
You must know that adrenaline injection is only for emergency and should never be taken on regular basis (unless told by your doctor). Over dosage of adrenaline can cause severe side effects which are listed below.

  • Trouble in breathing
  • Dangerously high blood pressure
  • Sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body
  • Problem in maintaining balance of body
  • Slurred speech
  • Vision Problems

Precaution: Never inject adrenaline into a vein. Accidentally injecting it in hand or feet can cause numbness in that area and blood flow get restricted there.

Note: Continuous stress in life can make you prone to over production of adrenaline.

Drinking water while standing is Harmful ! Explained

It is a common argument that kids often face when their parents ask them to drink water only while sitting. Even some grown ups don't leave the bad habit and gulp the water from bottle in the standing posture. Normally we blame lack of time or much thirst for that, but this bad habit can sometimes cost a lot for your health. Prior to some research i also used to think that what's wrong in it. After all it is water going into my body which is keeping me cool and relieving my thirst. The fact behind this simple but less understood daily habit is worth reading.

Water is an important constituent of our body. Around 70% of our body is water. The water we drink, comes out as urine, sweat and vapors, which also removes some toxins from our body. So in a way water purifies our body. There is a certain path that water should follow in our body, else it may result in health complications. Quenching our thirst is usually the primary motive when we drink water. While fulfilling that motive, we often for how we are fulfilling it.

Why drinking water while standing is harmful ?

Temperature : When you drink water while standing, you either directly gulp it from bottle or drink it very fast from a glass. In both of this circumstances, you don't let water stay in your mouth for sometime, which makes the too cold water go into your stomach. If you let the water stay in your mouth for few seconds, then it will normalize its temperature so that our body can yield best benefits from it. Drinking too cold water too quickly can put harm to your stomach and food pipe and also make you prone to cold.
Speed: As stated earlier, the speed at which water goes into our body matters a lot. If you sip it too fast, then you can't yield the best benefits of water. Just like eating too fast disturbs your digestion, drinking too fast also disturbs some body functions. You must know that drinking water is not just H2O, it contain several minerals necessary for our body.
Can't breathe properly: Major reason responsible for health complications is inability to breathe properly why gulping water in standing posture.
Ayurveda: Dhanvantari says in Ayurveda that sitting posture is best for drinking water. Drinking water is of equal importance as eating a meal. Drinking water while standing can lead to health complications like arthritis.

Harms of drinking water while standing
It can cause arthritis, heart problems and lung problems. Joint pain can easily occur due to this bad habit.

Never Drink it Fast
Water should always be gulped slowly after letting it wait for few seconds in mouth. Drinking it fast even while sitting will lead to similar health problems that you get by drinking water in standing posture. Drinking it fast also won't satisfy your thirst. So take a break and drink it slowly.

Kids, better listen to your parents. They might not be aware of the above facts, but what they say is right.

Note: Facts mentioned in this article are supported by any scientific researches. Ayurveda strictly recommends to drink water in sitting posture and drink it slowly.

Why do we get Goosebumps ?

Goosebumps are often seen in cold weather, but some other events like excitement or being scared can also cause it. Is there any reason behind it or it just happens. Everything in human body is for some reason, so there must be some importance of this reaction. Normally evolution takes away any unused feature, just as we have lost our tails. So there must be a use of this unique feature known as "Goosebumps".

Biology of Goosebumps

There are tiny muscles in our skin just under the hair follicles. Some conditions like sudden cold or getting scared activates these muscles to contract, which makes the tiny hairs stand up with tiny bumps on the skin.

Why do sudden cold atmosphere cause goosebumps ?
Our body radiates more heat when the hair lie flat on the skin surface. If the hair strands stand high then it saves the heat near skin to save ourselves from outer cold environment. However this feature is more useful in our ancestors like monkeys and gorillas, as they have a better hair coat over their skin.

Why do feeling scared cause goosebumps ?
Explanation to this fact is interesting. Feeling scared or threatened is something where we need to decide between "fight or flight". Here goosebumps can make us look bigger to make our opponent think twice before harming us. This feature is again less used in humans as we have shorter and lesser body hair. Our ancestors must have used this feature, just like cats do it before they engage in a fight.

Our Emotions can also cause goosebumps
Some of you must have noticed that listening to national anthem in a jam-packed stadium can easily give you goosebumps. Certain feelings that make you full of energy suddenly can cause goosebumps. Even getting intimate with someone can also cause it, sometimes even a touch of opposite sex is sufficient to get goosebumps. Sometimes some memories, some old song, or standing at a podium can give you goosebumps as all of these events are full of emotions.

Here you must be thinking that how does cold and some emotions cause goosebumps. The truth lies in an important hormone of animal body, known as Adrenaline. This hormone is secreted by our adrenal glands in following situations

  • Feeilng of extreme or sudden cold
  • Feeling fearful
  • Emotions like anger, excitement

As the adrenaline is released our body automatically prepares for "fight or flight" mechanism, which causes appearance of tears, trembling hands, sweaty palms and increase in heart beat with rising blood pressure. Other most important reaction of adrenaline release if goosebumps. Adrenaline contracts the smalls muscles in skin automatically and causes goosebumps.

Goosebumps can be best seen in porcupines, which raise their quills when threatened. These quills are nothing but hairs.

Why do we feel hot even when temperature is below our body temperature

Some of you must have noticed that we start feeling heat even when temperature is much below our body temperature. Scientifically thinking, we should not feel hot till the temperature does not go above 38 degree Celsius. But in reality we start feeling hot as the temperature rises above 30. Is there something wrong with our senses or our normal body temperature is quiet low than what we were told. Truth is somewhat different as our senses are correct and normal body temperature is also around 37 degrees.

Why do we feel hot even when temperature is below our body temperature ?
To understand that why we feel hot even when temperature is several degrees below body temperature, we need to know more about our body's functioning. Our body is a continuously working machine, and like every machine it radiates some heat. Our internal functions like pumping by heart, muscle movement, digestion of food and several other metabolic functions creates heat as a byproduct. Our body expels heat through skin. It radiates heat easily if the temperature of atmosphere is several degrees below body temperature. If the atmospheric temperature rises then it become harder for our skin to expel heat.
We the humans are only animals that wear clothes which makes our skin struggle more to expel heat. This is another major reason that we feel hot even before atmospheric temperature reaches our body temperature. During winters the same clothes help us in maintaining body temperature and save us from chill outside.

Humans are warm blooded animals and our body is designed to expel heat through various mechanisms. Some of them are discussed here.
Through Blood Circulation: Arteries and Veins are basic part of our blood circulation. Major arteries are normally much below the skin and deliver the oxygenated blood to all organs. Deoxygenated blood is then carried by our veins, which are normally superficial and appear blue at several parts of body. Here blood also carries the heat from internal organs to the superficial skin, which is the main heat radiator of our body. The purpose of veins being near the external skin is also explained by this fact.
Sweat Glands: Sweat glands present in our skin solve two purposes. They excrete some toxins through sweat and help is cooling down the body. As the external temperature rises above 30 degrees, we start producing sweat and utilizes our body heat to evaporate it, which cools the body down. If the humidity level is low in air, then this mechanism works perfectly.
Body Hair: Body hair play an important role in trapping and expelling body heat. When the lie flat on the body surface they expel heal, and trap it when the stand straight with the help of tiny muscles in the skin. These muscles are involuntary and function automatically when our body need it. You must have noticed their function, while changing clothes during winters, as we get goosebumps to save the body heat.

If the humidity level is high and the temperature is also high then it makes us sweat more as it does not evaporate due to humidity in air. It disturbs the purpose of sweating and we feel even more hot.


Does eating Fat make you Fat !

Are you fed up of sacrificing your favorite dishes, just because they contain fat. Now the time has come to debunk the low-fat diet myth and let you eat your favorite butter and cheese. Harvard School of Public Health published an article named "It’s Time to End the Low-Fat Myth" to let people know about the unhealthy diet schedule that some health conscious people were following to save themselves from obesity and heart diseases. Some recent researches have found that instead of having any positive effect on health, low-fat diet was actually degrading the health.

Does eating Fat make you Fat ?

Fat has got more calories per gram, i.e. 9 calories, while carbohydrate and proteins have just 4 calories per gram. It made some old researchers think that eating the similar weighing diets with more dietary fat will put more calories into your body, but if you go for low fat diet then you will get benefit of lesser amount of calories and feeling of full tummy. For past few decades a number of doctors continued to recommend low fat diet to save their patient from obesity, diabetes and health problems. But this misconception was proved totally wrong in some of the recent researches.

A large study which included results of 21 different studies done in 2010 and involved 347,747 human subjects concluded that saturated fat consumption is not linked to the risk of heart disease. [2]

Don't be surprised by the fact that low-fat diet makes negative effect on your body by reducing HDL, the good cholesterol. Eating saturated fat increases the HDL and also increases the size of small-dense LDL (which is bad for health) to large LDL (which is comparatively better). [1]

Do you know that a healthy women should have 27% body fat and a man should have 15% body fat. Why do women have higher body fat ?

So adding some saturated fat to your diet won't harm at all. Instead you will find that your lipid profile reports are improving, especially if your were on a low-fat diet earlier. If you were on a low-fat diet to reduce weight then you must know that low-fat diet has no connection with reducing weight and it can't make you slim.

If it is not Fat, then what makes you Obese ?

Why does Fat don't make you Fat ?

Usually people think that dietary fat directly get deposited as fat in your body, but this is a misconception, as our body can't absorb fat directly from the stomach and deposit the same in different parts of body. Dietary fat slows down the secretion of insulin, a hormone responsible for deposition of extra calories as fat in different parts of body. So instead of increasing body fat, dietary fat reduces deposition of body fat. [3]
When we eat fat, it consumes more calories in digestion and takes more time to digest. So eating fat consumes calories and also keeps your tummy full for longer duration. So fat-rich diet ends up in eating less due to feeling of satiation. It helps in consuming a calorie restricted diet.

Note: While deciding your diet plan, make sure not to end up consuming excess calories. In the end it is the excess calories that can cause weight gain. Consuming a balanced diet can help you in maintaining a good height to weight ration. 


Humans are Evolved to Eat Cooked Food - Fire is the Key

"Controlling the Fire" is one of the most important discoveries that evolved us to be Homo sapiens, the latest and best species on earth. The best proof of the above fact is that no other species eat cooked food, as they tend to run away from fire. Even the strongest wild animals run away from fire as they are fearful of it. But human ancestors learned the art to control fire and that fear was long gone. This art helped us in roasting the meat and then cooking the food. But how does cooking helped us in evolving as humans ? You will get an answer to this question in this article.

The Calories

Our ancestors like monkey, chimpanzee and apes used to eat raw veg food gathered from plants and tree. Their body used to struggle hard to extract sufficient energy from that type of food. If you have studied biology then you must be aware of the fact that plant cells have cell wall, known as cellulose, which hard to digest. That raw veg food made our ancestors eat more and increased their gut size. Chimpanzee and apes have got 60% bigger gut then humans only due to this fact.

Importance of Time

As our ancestors were eating more so they need to keep searching for food, which was not only time consuming by also making them deficient of calories. As their brain was not getting sufficient calories, it was not developing as much as it should. A developing brain also needs some time, that it can spend in some creative activities, but it was impossible to get due to their always searching and eating schedule. Do you know that gorillas and orangutans keep eating for nine hours per day.

In the beginning our ancestors diverted from veg to non-veg diet as it was richer in calories and kept them full for longer duration. It made them indulge in other creative activities and during that time we learned to control fire. It was a milestone in human evolution.

How Fire helped us in evolution ?

  • As the time progressed we learned to eat roasted food, which made both veg and non-veg food easily digestible. Heat made the food softer and lesser time was spent in chewing.
  • We started to extract more calories from same food and got more time to explore more and develop our brain. Our brain also started to get sufficient calories and nutrients to develop itself.
  • Heat treated food was also safer, as a number of pathogens were killed by heat and there was lesser chance of food poisoning. It must have given our ancestors relief from some diseases.
  • Fire also acted as a tool to save ourselves from wild animals and our ancestors started to live on land.
  • Fire also helped in making tools, that were later used to cut woods and make a good habitat on land.
  • Fire was also used to make utensils of soil and mud, which were used for cooking and storing purpose.
  • Evolution of Agriculture made humans store grain and provided them a food security. It gave them relief from hunting schedule and they reverted back to a mixed diet of both veg and non-veg.
  • Fire helped them in cooking the cultivated food and made stay at a single location. It also made them using some cattle as their pet, and utilizing their milk.
  • Cooked food reduced the size of our gut by 60%, when compared with our ancestors of similar stature.
  • Even the size of our intestine has reduced. It is because of the fact that cooked food is easily digestible and consumes lesser time and lesser calories for digestion.
  • Our smaller teeth and jaw tell about the same evolution attributed to cooked food. 
Today we have evolved so much that we can't survive on raw food alone, as we don't have bigger jaws, teeth and intestine to extract sufficient energy from it. Now our digestive system and enzymes is designed to eat cooked food. Some uncooked salad won't hurt.
Sometime people tend to go towards completely uncooked food, with no salt and sugar, to be slim and get more near nature and live a disease free life. Such steps can sometimes have a negative effect on your body. So don't be your own doctor and always consult a good dietitian before making any drastic changes in your diet.

Note: Today we have become so good at processing food, that we are eating more calories than needed. It is affecting the whole humanity with a disease named Obesity. 

Humans are Eight percent Virus : Viral Genes in Human DNA

Yes, you heard it right. Human DNA has traces of genetic material of some ancient Viruses. They are part of human genome and it become evident on completion of Human Genome Project. It is really hard to find those genes in human genome as it is like finding a needle in haystack. Previously it was thought they these genes in human body are idle and don't function, but later researchers found that they are there for a purpose and may be helping us to increase our immunity.

How did Virus Genes enter the human genes permanently ?

When a virus infects the human body, it transfers its genetic material into the infected cells and alters the DNA of that cell. But it can't be permanent part of human genome. Researchers believe that millions of years ago some retrovirus infected ancestors of humans and entered sperm cells. When those infected sperm cells were used in fertilization during normal reproductive process, they created an infected offspring which has got those viral genes. In the beginning it must have been like some inborn disease, but as generations progressed genetic mutations occur and those genes were altered and shutdown by our immune system. As the time progressed those viral genes spread in whole humanity.

Are those ancient viral genes helping us today ?

Some of these viral genes sits near those human genes which are responsible for immunity. Some more research made scientists believe that those viral genes are improving our immunity and help us fight against infections in a better way. Those genes might be a reason behind survival of human race for so long. Those genes must have helped in evolution of humans.

Some researchers believe that we have got hundreds of genes from bacteria, archaea, fungi, other microorganisms and plants we we have evolved from those forms of life. We are not something directly created. We have evolved from a number of other forms of life and thus contain genetic material from a number of those old species.

Unknown facts about Viral Genes in Human DNA

  • We have got around 100,000 pieces of DNA that come from retroviruses. It means our 5 to 8% DNA is made up of virus genes.
  • Syncytin is a protein which is essential in building placenta in mammals. A viral gene is responsible for creation of this protein. If this gene would not have been there then mammal evolution might have taken some other turn and humans might not have been formed.
  • Hemo is a protein made by a fetus and the placenta. This protein is produced from viral DNA that entered our ancestors’ genomes 100 million years ago. Its usage is still unknown.
  • Viral Genes in Human Genome are the primary reason that we can fight most of the viral infections on our own.
  • Some researchers believe that development of fetus is impossible without viral genes in our body. Some viral proteins are made around fetus for unknown reasons which might be holding some unknown key to fetal development.  

Some researchers feel that viral genes are part of human genome and it will take time to find which one are good and which one are bad. But like everything else it has got two sides of the coin. Some genes might be increasing our immunity but some might be making us prone to killer diseases like cancer.

Facts about DNA Chromosomes and Genes

DNA, Chromosomes and Genes are some fascinating words of biology. Talking about these words gives most of us a feeling of being a scientific person. But the truth is that most of us just study these words during the school days and never know much about them. Here we will tell you some facts about DNA, Chromosomes and Genes that will enlighten you and make you understand the complexity of human body.

  • There are 30 trillion human cells in the body of an average human being. Out of them 84% are RBC (Red Blood Cells).
  • There are 210 different types of cells present in our body. Each type of cells has their own function.
  • Each cell in our body has got a nucleus. There are 23 pairs of Chromosomes in each Nucleus.
  • 22 Pairs of chromosomes are called "autosomes", while the 23rd pair is sex chromosome which is responsible for our gender.
  • In each pair of chromosome, one comes from father and one comes from mother.
  • Chromosomes are differentiated by their size. The number provided to them is based on their size in descending pattern. 
  • Each chromosome has got a DNA inside it, which is a double helix structure.
  • If we unfold the DNA in a single cell and lay it straight then it would be around 2 meters in length.
  • DNA is made up of two backbones and a series of bridges. It gives a look of spiral ladder when seen under a microscope.
  • The backbone of DNA is made up of phosphate and deoxyribose, while the bridges are long thin molecules called nucleotides. There are four different types of nucleotides: adenine (A) , thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). These nucleotides are found in pairs and thus known as "base pairs".
  • Only a certain set of nucleotides can make base pairs. A connects with T only and G connects with C only. 
  • A DNA molecule thus contain a number of base pairs in different patterns. It can form millions of patterns.
  • A small set of pattern of nucleotides inside the DNA makes a single Gene. The number of genes inside a DNA depends on the size of chromosome and DNA. According to an estimate by Genome Project there are 20 to 25 thousand genes in each cell. 
Do u know that 
  • Each gene is responsible for some feature of our body. Genes are even responsible for our emotions, diseases and physical capabilities.
  • The genes inside a cell is the software program, which makes the cell (the hardware) develop the protein coded in form of gene.
  • All genes are not active in each type of cell. Only a few set of genes are active in each type of cell which allows it to produce a specific set of proteins and it is known as gene expression.
  • The function of a cell depends on the Gene Expression in that cell, which gives it the shape and functionality.
  • There are 3 billion base pairs in each cell and if we write their code in book then it would need 262,000 pages. Only 500 pages in that book would be unique to a person.
  • 99.9 percent of DNA is same in all humans. Only 0.1 percent makes the difference in our personality, looks, intelligence.
  • Human DNA matches 96% with Chimpanzee , but that 4% makes a lot of difference. Cats and humans are 90% similar genetically. Domestic Cattle are 80% genetically similar to humans. Surprising fact is that Banana and humans have 60% similar DNA.
  • The number of chromosomes found in a species don't tell anything about their superiority. Chromosome count vary from 10 to 250 among different species. Humans have got just 46, but ruling the whole planet.
Please share your views on what you think about the above facts. We will publish your views in the comments section below.

The Truth behind Body Odors and your Sweat

Body Odor is the signature of a person and sniff dogs use these odors to find someone. Humans have also devoted a lot of money and time to get rid of body odor or to have a good body fragrance. People use different perfumes and deodorants to smell good but it is hard to get rid of body odor. Some good fragrance may override it for few hours but eventually body odor will come back. What is the reason behind behind body odor ? Is it due to sweat or something else ? You will get answers to such question further in this article.

Why do we have Body Odors?
Body odor is created by certain chemical reactions made by microorganisms living on our skin and the sweat that we produce. More body odor is produced in certain regions such as armpits because the sweat produced there is different from other body parts. There are different micro organisms residing on different parts of skin and different type of sweat is produced on different regions which make our body smell different. The more we sweat, the more we smell.

The science behind Body Odor

We have got two type of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine glands are present all over the body and their sweat is mostly made up of water, as it works to cool down the body and regulate the temperature. Apocrine glands are only at some targeted locations, such as armpits, and their sweat is mostly proteins and lipids. Bacterias residing on these locations feed on that protein. When the outer layer of protein is broken by these bacteria, certain amount of smell is produced.
  • There are around 50 thousand sweat glands on our body.
  • We produce up to one liter of sweat a day and also release harmful toxins through it.
  • Feet, groin and armpit regions produce more body odor due to presence of apocrine glands. 
  • Lesser ventilation in these areas make it an ideal place for bacteria to grow.
  • Body odor of another person helps us in accepting or rejecting him/her. It is just like we accept or reject a food item on the basis of its smell. Body odor of a person is an important factor behind attraction.
Why Body Odor is different in every person ?
There are various factors that decide the body odor of a person. Some of them are listed below.
  • Apocrine glands of different people secrete different composition of proteins and lipids. Apart from that the microbes residing on their skin can also be different. This overall difference can easily change their body odor to a great extent. 
  • Genetics play an important role in body odor. People in blood relation may have slightly similar body odor but a sniff dog can easily distinguish them.
  • The proteins that are released with sweat depends on food that you eat. So your diet is also a factor that decides your body odor.
  • Hygiene factor such as bathing also decides your body odor. If a person don't take a bath on daily basis then bacteria count on his/her skin will be high and so does odor.
  • Health conditions can also affect the proteins released in our sweat which changes the body odor.
  • If a person is nervous, anxious or under stress then he/she produces more smelly sweat due to change in protein secretion in sweat.
  • Overweight people have folds in their skin which makes it a better place for bacteria to grow and produce more body odor.
  • A woman smells more when she is going through the most fertile state of menstrual cycle.
  • Medication that you are taking can also affect your body odor.
  • Climatic condition also affect the body odor.
Is body odor a fragrance or a bad smell ?
However now we take body odor as a bad smell but the biological truth of animal kingdom is that male and female of are attracted to each other through body odor which helps in the process of reproduction. Genes of only those are forwarded in next generation who smell better than others. But humans evolved their own science of fragrance and developed perfumes to override body odor to attract others.
  • Deodorants mask the smell with a fragrance
  • Perfumes were just to put on clothes to override your body odor.
  • Probiotic deodorant promote certain bacterial colonies which can make you smell better.
  • Antiperspirants reduce the amount of sweat.
Now you must have known that body odor is caused by interaction between your own body proteins and some good bacteria on your skin. Body odor is produced only because you are feeding some good bacteria on your skin. It is good to take a bath daily to keep your skin bacteria count to a limited level which also keeps your body odor under control. You may feel sometimes that you are smelling bad because your nose is at the shortest distance from you armpit, but a person standing even in front of you might not find it as bad (someone might like it, especially opposite gender).

Is Human Body made of / for Bacteria !

We usually think that bacteria is harmful but this notion will change after reading this article. If you are reading such information for the very first time then you might be surprised to know that your body is full of bacteria, but some people still think that bacteria harm them. If you really care about your body then you must know about bacteria in detail to keep yourself healthy. A general thinking about bacteria is that they are the disease causing agents for our body. But the truth is that most of the bacteria are good, and only a few percent are bad bacteria which are responsible for causing disease.

Good Bacteria vs Bad Bacteria

Some researchers say that human body have 10 times bacteria than the number of cells in human body. However some new researches has decreased this ratio but still the estimated count of bacterial cells in human body is more than number of human cells. There are 30 trillion human cells in the body of an average human being. Out of them 84% are RBC (Red Blood Cells). A research done at Weizmann Institute in Israel found that there are 39 trillion bacterial cells in body. Fungi, viruses and archaea present in our body are not counted in these bacterial cells. The range of these bacterial cells range from 30 to 50 trillion in different individuals depending on their gender and lifestyle. It simply means that we have got more bacterial cells than our own cells.

This research confirms that our body is host for a large range of bacteria. Usually we think of our body as a single entity, which is complete in itself. But the truth is just opposite. Our body is incomplete if it does not act as a host to numerous other microorganisms. Bacteria is a major part of these microorganisms residing in or body without our knowledge. Our whole body and metabolism is dependent on these bacteria to function properly.

Bacteria digest our Food : Our mouth, stomach, intestine and complete digestive system is full of bacteria and these bacteria are responsible for digesting the food that we eat. We can't get full nutrition in absence of these bacteria.
Bacteria develops Immune System: Our outer skin is full of bacteria and they help in developing immune system. If they are not there from beginning then our immune system can't fight with any invasive harmful bacteria.
Bacteria is first layer of defense: Our outer skin is full of bacteria. More than 200 species of bacteria reside there. They don't let any other harmful bacteria reside on our skin. We get infected with any bad bacteria only if it crosses that first layer of defense, which are good bacteria residing on our skin.

Some bacteria are useful in one organ but harmful in other. Its best example is E-Coli which causes UTI. This bacteria is meant for intestine, but if it migrates to urinary tract then it causes harmful infection. Similarly Staph bacteria resides on our skin without causing any harm, but if it gets inside through any cut or compromised immune system then it may cause infection. Every bacteria in our body is meant for a specific location and has a specific function to perform.
Note: Some studies have shown that those children who are kept in fully sanitized environment are more prone to asthma and other allergies.
So think twice before you have any antibiotic to treat a minor disease. Facts about antibiotics and bacteria

You must have heard that humans are a social being and need good coordination with our friends, relatives and society to live a good life. But what most of us don't know is that we have got a similar population living inside us in the bacterial form and a proper balance among them is necessary to live a healthy life. In reality we are more bacteria than human.
It won't be wrong to say that human body is made up of bacteria and made for bacteria. Some of the bacteria present inside body can't survive outside our body as the environment outside is not suitable for them.

Strongest Muscles in Human Body

Muscles are something that makes us feel stronger. But which muscle in human body is strongest ? But reality is that definition of strength is different for different conditions. Some muscles are strongest in terms of working continuously for longer duration while some muscles are best in giving huge amount of pressure within a few seconds. So based on these different definitions of strength, you will come to know about different powerful muscles in human body in this article. If we declare any one muscle of body as the strongest muscle then it would be injustice to more than 800 other muscles.

We collected a list of different muscles whom we can call as strongest muscles of our body. Out of these muscles we can't give the status of number one to a single muscle, as all of them do exceptionally were at their respective places in our body. We can't even think about surviving without any one of them.

Cardiac Muscles: These muscles make the wall of the heart and contract to pump the blood to the whole body. These muscles never rest and stop only when a person dies. They do the hardest work in body and never get tired. 2 ounces (71 grams) of blood is pumped in every heart beat. It means daily 2,500 gallons (9,450 liters) of blood is pumped. Cardiac muscles are involuntary and can't be controlled at will.
Masseter Muscle: This  facial muscle helps us in chewing food by exerting pressure on food through our jaw. These muscles help us put pressure of 200 pounds (90.7 kilograms) on the molars and 55 pounds (25 kilograms) on the incisors. This pressure is sufficient to chew any solid food and get the best taste out of it.
External Muscles of Eye: These muscles are best in terms of coordination with our body. We can't see an object properly without these muscles. They help us in maintaining a focus any object either it is still or moving. They even help us in not losing the focus even when your own head moving or shaking. 10,000 coordinated movements are made by these muscles within an hour while reading a book. So you can easily imagine how much stress they bear when you are running or driving. These muscles get tired and need rest in the form of sleep.
Gluteus Maximus: These muscles are inside our hips and the largest muscle in our body. It help us in keeping our posture erect. Without this muscle we can't even think of standing straight and walking upstairs.
Uterus Muscles: These muscles work at the time of delivery of a baby by contracting the muscles of Uterus to push the baby out. Pituitary Gland secrets oxytocin hormone to stimulate contraction of these muscles.
Soleus: This muscle is responsible for walking, running, standing, dancing and making balance. It is also known as the anti-gravity muscle of human body as it works against the force of gravity. It is present in our leg just below the calf muscles(gastrocnemius).
Tongue Muscles: There are many muscles inside our tongue working at different levels. It has got one of the toughest job to do, i.e.pushing the saliva into our digestive system. It also helps in mixing the food while the food is being chewed by our teeth. It works with great coordination with our teeth and never get cut.
Rectus Femoris: This muscle helps in kicking or sprinting. This muscle connects our hips to knees and helps in extending or raising the knee. Injury in this muscle is mostly found only in soccer players due to its over usage.

All of the above muscles are strongest in one or other way. Their sequence in this article has nothing to do with their ranking. You will never want to get any of these muscles hurt in any way in your lifetime.

Tears - A Unique Mystery about Humans

Humans are the only species who shed tears as a result of emotions. Other species also shed tears, but only due to pain or irritation. Women are generally considered more emotional, so tears are often regarded as a weapon for them. Charles Darwin once told that emotional tears are purposeless. Still 150 years after Darwin, the human tears are a mystery for scientists. Tears are often considered as water by some people and often regarded as a sign of weakness, but this myth will be broken in this article.

What are tears made of ?

Tears are not just water, as often considered by some people. If it is just water then it may evaporate easily due to body heat or environmental heat, which would make it harder for eyes to remain wet. It is a mixture water, fat and protein. Basically it contains water, mucin, lipids, lysozyme, lactoferrin, lipocalin, lacritin, immunoglobulins, glucose, urea, sodium, and potassium. The proportion may differ for different people depending on time and emotion. Normally tears are secreted in small amount to clean the eye and keep the cornea wet. They shed away on cheeks only when they are secreted in excess amount and nasal passage can't handle that flow.

Why Tears are necessary for our body ?

  • Tears keep eyeball wet, which is necessary to see properly.
  • Tears pass through to our nostrils through a nasal passage to keep the nose wet and trap the dust and microorganisms in the breathe.
  • Tears contain lysozyme, which can kill 90 to 95 percent of all bacteria.
  • Crying makes our body to release feel-good endorphins, which are also released when we do some physical workout or when we laugh.

Tears are of three types
  • Basal Tears: They are always there in the eyes to nourish them and keep the eyeball wet.
  • Reflex Tears: They protect our eye from irritants such as dust in wind, onion and smoke.
  • Emotional Tears: These tears come out as a result of some emotion such as joy or sorrow.

All three types of tears have different chemical composition.

Tears and the emotional connection

Some psychologists believe that tears are there because man is a social animal. It tells the people near us that we are temporarily going through some problem that is beyond our ability to cope. Emotional tears are different from those tears that comes out due to onion chopping. Emotional tears are more viscous due to more protein content and they stick to the skin and remain on the cheeks for a longer duration, so that someone close can notice them easily. Same neural areas of brain are activated, when we cry or when we see someone crying. Your tears can neutralize the anger of the person in front of you. Being able to cry and the ability to recognize it and respond to it, is an important characteristic that humans got in the process of evolution. Tears can sometimes save a person from further argument and punishment, which makes it a protective mechanism for our body.

History of Research on Tears

  • Around 1500 BC people use to think that tears originate from heart.
  • During Hippocrates' time (460 BC-370 BC) it was thought that mind triggers the tears.
  • In early 17th century it was believed that emotions heat the heart, water vapors are formed there to cool it down, then those vapors rise upwards and condense near eyes and come out as tears.
  • Lacrimal Glands were discovered in 1662 by a Danish scientist named Niels Stensen. These glands also referred as tear glands were found responsible for generation of tears. Stensen also told that tears are there to keep the eyes moist.
  • Vingerhoets, a clinical psychologist, published a theory in 1960. According to that theory humans evolved from aquatic apes and tears helped us live in salt water. This theory was totally rejected by scientific community.
  • Biochemist William Frey popularized a theory in 1985 that crying is a mechanism to remove toxic substances from the blood which build up due to stress.

Today some of the above theories seems to be foolish, but during those times that was a scientific belief. Today we know a lot more than that only because of those theories. But still tears are a mystery.

Some Facts about Tears

  • A newly born baby can't produce tears even if they cry till the age of six weeks.
  • Quantity of tears decrease as we age.
  • Biochemically tears are similar to saliva.
  • According to some researches women cry more than man. Approximately five times more.
  • The crying session is also lengthier for women. Average crying session of women lasts for six minutes, while it is two to four minutes for men.
  • Happy tears and sad tears are chemically same.

Why do we Blink our Eyes ?

Human eyes are extraordinary device that provides most of the external information to our brain, which helps us in identifying objects, faces, moods, danger and a lot of other things. A person with good eyes can't even imagine the life of a blind person. Yet we don't care much about them. We don't even tend to know the basic functions and how our body protects this beautiful yet brilliant organ fitted next to our brain. Blinking eyes seems to be a normal thing to most of us, but very less people know why our eyes blink and why do they blink together. While researching on this question, i came across some similar questions. Answers to those questions are worth reading. I can promise you won't regret reading this article about blinking of our eyes.

Why do we blink our eyes ?

Our eyes need constant moisture and cleaning of the surface. When we blink, one drop of some liquid (mixture of oils and mucous) from our tear glands comes on to our eyes and our eyelid wipes the whole surface of eye. It cleans the surface and moisture is also provided to our eyes. Further the remaining liquid goes out through a duct connecting our eyes with our nostrils. This remaining liquid also provides moisture to our nose, which helps in trapping the dust particles in incoming breathe.

Why do we blink both eyes at the same time ?

Blinking both eyes at the exactly same time makes us blind for a fraction of second. There must be a reason behind that, else during the evolution process we should have adopted the process of blinking one eye at a time. All animals blink both eyes at the same time, so do humans. The answer to this riddle lies in the structure of our skull and nervous system.
Human beings evolved as predators, not like preys. Predators have their eyes close to each other to look in the same direction and focus on objects. Closeness of our eyes made our nervous system use a single nerve to carry the signal of blinking to both the eyes. It made them blink together. That nerve controls our upper eyelid only, which makes blinking easier and less effortless. When we wink a single eye, we use other facial muscles from lower eyelid, cheek and nose, which makes us do more effort and using different nerves. Being a predator our eyes also need to focus on objects. Single eye can see objects, but can't focus on them properly. Two eye in the same direction, working at the same time with full coordination are necessary to focus properly and judging the distance. This might be one of the major reasons that we blink both eyes together. Blink one eye at a time can mislead us in focusing and judging the distance.

Why do we blink/close eyes while sneezing ?

It is a natural response by our body. When we sneeze the air travels out of our mouth at a speed of 100 miles/hour. This is an enormous speed. When we sneeze the muscles of our face contract to handle the upcoming pressure. This involuntary contraction of muscles closes our eyes as well. This closing of eyes not only provides proper support to our eyes to handle this pressure but also protects our eyes from the germs that my come into our eyes due to high speed air flow.

Protective Mechanism of Eyes

  • Apart from this regular blinking, our eyes can also blink automatically when they find some foreign material going inside our eyes, such as dust or a fly. This is one of the most spontaneous and fast reactions of our body. It is a protective mechanism of our eyes.
  • Eyes are closest to our brain for a reason, i.e. so that we can protect both brain and eyes at the same time with our hands.

Some amazing facts about blinking eyes

  • Humans blink 15 to 20 times per minute.
  • On an average we take 0.1 to 0.4 seconds to blink.
  • Babies blink quiet less than an adult human being.
  • You will definitely blink while sneezing.
  • We blink more while talking.
  • We blink less while reading.

Why do men have nipples ?

Some say that nipples in men is just an evolutionary baggage and believe that men once used to feed babies. Some say that it is just for looks, else the chest region would look empty. Most of such talks don't really make an intellectual person believe them. So we decided to know the real motive behind men's nipples. The facts that we got are really interesting and make us understand the human body better.

Men and Nipples ! What do Science say ?

In the beginning as the embryo is formed inside the uterus, you can't determine its sex, as it is neither male nor female. By that time nipples have formed. After 6 or 7 weeks certain changes occur, which determine its gender. If it is going to be male, then testes start to form and testosterone hormone begins to produce. It is the testosterone hormone that makes a male from the uni-sexual embryo.

According to one more scientific hypothesis, we are all females inside the mothers womb for upto 7 weeks. After than the Y chromosome develops in some embryos to make the male. By that time nipples and some undeveloped breasts have already developed. Even the labia and clitoris have also formed by that time. But as the testosterone hormone production starts, labia fuse to become scrotum and clitoris develops to become penis.

Why men can't feed a baby ?

Nipples in men as just dummy and can't produce milk. Prolactin hormone in females stimulates lactation and milk is formed inside the breasts to feed babies. Absence of this hormone in males makes men incapable of producing milk.

Can a man lactate ?

Yes, in some very rare cases it has happened. It happens only when pituitary gland in males secrete prolactin hormone, which is responsible for lactation in women. In 2010 a study was published where a man lactated due to pituitary tumor. Normally a woman have double amount of prolactin hormone in her body compared to man. During and after pregnancy this amount can become 10 times which makes a woman lactate. It means that a man needs 20 times more prolactin to be able to lactate which can happen only under certain rare medical conditions.

Can a men have breast Cancer ?

Yes, however the chances are very rare. Only 1% of all breast cancer cases happen in men. It is because men have underdeveloped breasts under their nipples. Obesity play an important role in developing breast cancer in men.

Those of you who feel more proud to be a man should must know that once you were a baby girl and god left you with those non-useful nipples to keep you reminding of that.

Can we survive with pure Oxygen as air ?

The air that we breathe contains only 21% oxygen. It means there is no necessity of pure 100% oxygen for a person to breathe properly. But is there any positive or negative side-effect on our body if we inhale pure oxygen. Several researches were done on this topic and results were quiet surprising. To understand the concept of breathing pure 100% oxygen, which sounds quiet healthy, you must understand your breathing process.

Our Normal Breathing Process

Our respiratory system consists of trachea to bronchi to bronchioles to alveoli (larger to smaller in size). Each alveoli is surrounded by pulmonary capillaries containing blood. The wall between these alveoli and capillaries are just 0.5 microns thick, which can let the gases pas through it according to their concentration on both sides. When we inhale the alveolus is filled with air containing 21% oxygen and other gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide. The concentration of oxygen in blood inside the capillary is usually lower than that, thus oxygen flow from alveolus to blood in capillary. Similarly carbon dioxide flows from blood to alveolus as its concentration is generally lower in alveolus. Thus we inhale oxygen-rich air and exhale carbon-dioxide-rich air.

How does pure oxygen harm our lungs

When we breathe 100% pure oxygen then all of it can't pass into the blood as blood has its own limits to carry oxygen.

  • The free oxygen in lungs can bind to surface proteins and damage lungs. 
  • It can also damage central nervous system and retina.
  • Fluid accumulates in lungs and gas flow through alveoli becomes slower.
  • At one atmospheric pressure pure oxygen can cause partial bronchitis in 24 hours.

If the atmospheric pressure of oxygen is higher then the damage will be more. Apollo astronauts used 100% pure oxygen for two weeks without and side-effect because they used it at reduced air pressure. When guinea pigs are exposed to 100% pure oxygen for 48 hours at normal air pressure then damage was noticed in their lungs. Human are also prone to such damage unless reduced air pressure is used. Pure oxygen can cause serious medical condition or even death if given to a human being for days.

Note: Clean air is all we need to breath properly. So instead of thinking about pure oxygen as a way to improve your health, it is better to know the truth that we are meant to inhale a mixture of gases present in normal atmosphere. We should think more about protecting this atmosphere and make it free from dangerous pollutants.

How long can a person stop his breath !

You must have tried it for fun while playing with your friend. Some people practice it to improve their underwater swimming experience while some practice it just to know how long can they stop their breath. Some people also do it to make it to Guinness World Records. We don't suggest you to practice it alone at your home as sometimes it can be really dangerous. Those who made world records used proper guidance and expert advice to do it correctly.

Breathing is something that happens naturally without forcing our body to do it. But when it comes to stopping your breathing process, you need to apply force and control your urge to inhale.
Aleix Segura Vendrell (Spain) holds the Guinness World Record for holding breath for 24 Minutes 03 Seconds.

There are some secrets behind holding the breath for such a long duration.

  • Underwater: You can stop your breath for longer duration under water compared to land. The duration differs by 50%. No one has yet hold his breath for more than 12 minutes on land, while the underwater record is above 24 minutes. This is due to “diving reflex". Even if an untrained diver goes inside the water, the pulse rate slows down by 30%, which means a decrease in metabolic rate of body. Professional divers can slow their pulse by 50% under the water. This diving reflex decreases the oxygen consumption of body and allows a diver to hold his/her breath for longer duration.
  • Hyperventilation: Hyperventilation is a process of fast and deep breathing to decrease the Carbon Dioxide level in body. Those who have deeper knowledge of biology know the fact that our brain controls the urge to breathe through CO2 level (not Oxygen level). When CO2 level in brain reaches at a certain maximum level, we feel the heavy urge to breathe. Decreasing the CO2 level through hyperventilation makes a person buying some extra time to stop his/her breath, as it takes longer for CO2 level to reach the maximum level.
  • Practice: Practice and dedication is the key to holding your breath for long duration. But you should never practice it alone without any medical help near you. Slowing down your pulse rate/metabolism by 50% takes a lot of practice.

Side effects of holding your breath

Stopping your breathing process is not something normal for your body. Your body will try to do everything to make you breathe. But if you don't then it will take some alternative measures to save your life. These alternative measures constitute of some side effects on body.

  • Brain Damage: Lack of oxygen supply to your brain can damage certain areas in your brain. However there are different views on this side effect among the experts.
  • Hypoxia: If you are doing hyperventilation before stopping your breathe then you might face unconsciousness due hypoxia, which is lack of oxygen in body tissues. Hyperventilation decreases CO2 level in body and it takes longer for that level to reach its maximum level, but the oxygen level in body might be exhausted before CO2 level reaches its maximum level, which can cause unconsciousness due to hypoxia.

Note: Guinness World Record allows the contestant to hyperventilate with pure oxygen for 30 minutes before making an attempt to stopping breathing. In normal air oxygen is just 21% while in pure oxygen it is 100%, which makes a person stop his breath around 2 times more than hyperventilating with normal air. So a normal person with normal air to breath with no practice of hyperventilation can never reach even the 50% time of the world record.

Is Insulin Resistance really a disease ?

Insulin Resistance is popularly known as a major reason behind Diabetes. But very few of us know if Insulin Resistance is really a disease in itself or not. Yes, Insulin Resistance is a major reason behind diabetes if it remains in body for a longer duration. But the truth is that Insulin Resistance is a protective mechanism for our body. You will understand it once you read this complete article. To understand this mechanism better you need to go through the working of Insulin hormone and its resistance mechanism. Then you will know how Insulin Resistance is actually a protective mechanism for our body.

How does Insulin works in our body ?
Whenever blood sugar level rises in our body, insulin hormone is released. This hormone get mixed in our blood supply from pancreas and then sits on insulin receptors on each cell. It makes the body cells being capable of receiving glucose from blood and fulfill their energy needs. Once the energy demand of all body cells is fulfilled and if still some extra glucose is available in blood stream (apart from the minimum blood glucose level) then insulin converts in to fat and stores in different fat stores of body for usage during energy demands during high intensity work load or during starvation. 

What is Insulin Resistance ?
It is a mechanism in human body where all or most of the body cells become resistant to insulin temporarily. It means that body cells don't accept insulin hormone to sit on their insulin receptors. It makes the blood glucose level remaining elevated for longer duration. However it occurs more often in a diabetic person but if it happens in a controlled manner then it is a protective mechanism for our body.

Why Insulin Resistance is a protective mechanism ?

Helps in survival of brain: Our brain is just 2% of body mass but requires 20% of energy. When our brain needs more energy supply due to any work load, our brain can trigger insulin resistance in remaining body so that the glucose in blood is not utilized by any other body part and our brain keep working. After all brain is most important for body.
During development of fetus: Insulin resistant can occur in a pregnant women to provide more glucose to the brain of developing fetus. At that time there are two brains in woman's body and require more energy to work and develop.
When our brain need more energy: 

Negative effects of long term Insulin resistance

  • If insulin resistance becomes a permanent feature of your body or occurs more often then it can cause diabetes type 2.
  • Insulin resistance makes your pancreas work more to produce more insulin and already available remains incapable to lower blood glucose. This long term workload on pancreas make them incapable to produce insulin anymore or the insulin production is permanently reduced.
What makes Insulin Resistance uncontrolled in our body?
So now you know that "Insulin Resistance" can make us unhealthy if it become uncontrolled. What makes it uncontrolled is the main thing to worry about. Most of the researches found that obesity is the main reason behind it. Large stores of fat in our body are capable of generating its own hormones which disturbs the hormonal balance in body and cause insulin  resistance to occur without any need.

How to protect yourself from uncontrolled Insulin Resistance ?
You already know it ! Just control your weight. Waist of above 40 puts you at very high risk of insulin resistance. Most of the patients of diabetes never notice this condition when they remain pre-diabetic for years. So wake up now and control your waistline.

Does Human Body works on Electricity !

Most of us think that we get energy just from food for our day to day work but the truth is that we work on electricity. If you have not studied about nervous system and brain then you might not be familiar with the fact that our body works on electricity. Our heart beats due to that electricity, our muscle move due to that electricity and your thinking is dependent on that electricity. Most of these electrical functions are involuntary and we can't do much about that. Even our memory can't function without that electricity. Here in this article we will try to explain how this electricity is generated and how our body works through it.

Why do our body need electricity to transmit messages while it can be done through blood ?
Any liquid travelling from one part of body to other part takes some time, even the minimum time will be a few minutes. Suppose someone is chasing you but your brain sends the signals to your heart to beat faster and to your legs to run, through blood stream. In such case your will start running after a few minutes and in the mean time whole event might have been finished. Electrical signals in nerves travel much faster and hence acts as the fastest medium of communication within our body.

Is there any difference between electricity in wires and nerves ?
Normal current that flow in wires is somehow different from current flowing in our body. In wires flow of electrons, which are negative charge particles, is known as current. While in our nerves sodium ions and potassium ions do this work, not electrons. Due to this reason some people don't distinguish it as electricity in human body, but still it is some sort of charge and it flows really fast. However speed of electrons in wires is much faster than speed of ions in nerves. Flow of ions in nerves can also be called as nerve impulse. Speed of nerve impulses differ from each other depending on the type of nerve. Nerve impulses to send a pain signal travels slower at 0.61 m/s. Touch signals travel at high speeds of 76.2 m/s. But you can't compare any of these nerve impulses with the spped of real electricity in wires i.e. 200,000,000 m/s . Don't get disappointed as at max the nerve impulse can travel at 119m/s which is more than speed of a formula 1 racing car.

Nerves act as wires in the body

All organs and muscles in our body are connected to our brain through our nervous system, which is just like wires connected from brain to all body parts for proper controlling. However in reality these are not wires but nerve cells which are connected to each other and carry to-and-fro electrical signals between brain and all parts of body. We have got 90,000 miles of nerves in our body which is even more than length of blood vessels in body, which is just 60,000 miles.

How does current flow in our nerves ?
Our nerve cells are specially created cells for transmission of signals. Nerve cells have several dendrites and one axon. Axon terminals are used to transmit while dendrites receive the signal. The flow of current across neurons is just like a relay race. One neuron receives a signal and passes it on to next. Ions travel only in some part of cell and rest is done by electric field. When our body needs to sends a signal, it opens the membrane gate, which let the Na and K ions move freely in and out of neuron. Negative Potassium ions leave the cell due to positive charge outside and positively charged sodium ions enter it. This switch in charge generates an electrical impulse which opens the gate of next neuron and in this way the transmission reaches the destination.

Sometimes people try to find how much current can flow through neurons. The answer is not what people think as it is ions, not electrons and these ions are not racing, but relay racing. However some resting potential in terms of millivolts is measured. Resting potential of a cell is around -70mV. Electrical property of cells and neurons are determined the membrane surrounding it. So don't try to know the ampere value of current flowing in human body as different websites will give different answers.