Which blood group is best ? Type A, B, O or AB

We the humans have evolved in millions of year, but in the beginning there were not so many blood groups. Type-A was the most ancient blood type, which is found in hominids (pre-humans). Around 5 million years ago type-O blood group originated after some genetic mutation. Before we proceed further you should know a little about blood groups. 

Blood Groups among Humans

Based on antigen A and B, we have four different blood types: A, B, AB and O.

  • Type A : have only A-antigen on red-blood cells.
  • Type B : have only B-antigen on red-blood cells.
  • Type AB : have both A and B antigen on red-blood cells.
  • Type O : have neither A nor B antigen on red-blood cells.

In early 1900s, Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovered ABO blood types. If Type A person is given Type B blood then his body considers it as some foreign object and rejects it, which can be fatal. During those days Type-O blood group was considered as universal donor, as it has got no antigens, and in most of the cases it was accepted by every receiver. Similarly Type AB was considered as universal receiver. 

But still something was missing. Cross-matching is a technique where two blood samples are mixed to check if they are accepting each other. In such cross-matching sometimes samples of same blood group were not matching. In 1940 Karl Landsteiner and A.S. Weiner gave answer to this puzzle by discovering the Rh factor. Today we know it as positive and negative. If RhD protein is present on RBC then we call that blood group positive, else negative. It is called Rh (Rhesus) factor because it was originally found in rhesus macaque monkeys. So it made two subgroups in previously accepted 4 blood groups, thus taking the count to 8 types of blood groups. In present terms O-ive is the "universal donor" while AB+ive is "universal recipient" blood type.

Evolving blood groups among humans

Earliest blood group found in human ancestors (hominids) was type A. Around 5 million years ago Type O blood group evolved. It makes Type B and type AB as the most recent. Usually evolution takes place to improve us to make us adapt to present environment. Blood groups and their effect on our overall health is a major topic of research today. 

According to wikipedia, O+ is most common blood group with 38.67% population. 27.42% are A+, 22.02% are B+ and 5.88% are AB+.

Around 94% of world population is Rh-positive while just 6% is Rh-negative. If we talk about Rh-negative blood groups then 2.55% are O-, 1.99% are A-, 1.11% are B- and just 0.36% are AB-.

B blood group is mostly found in south Asia, while it was totally absent in native Americans and Australians. 

Which blood group is Best ?

Most of us think that blood is just a carrier of oxygen and nutrients in our body. But evolution of blood groups in human body means that there must be some hidden features. Some people believe that AB+ blood group is best, as people with this blood group are universal recipient, so during any medical emergency they may receive any other blood group. If you are one of those who like donation then you may think that having O- blood group is best. Apart from receiving and donating blood there are a number of features that are listed below.

  • Cells infected with malaria don't stick to Type O and B, while they stick to type A. It means people with O and B blood groups are on safer side from malaria.
  • People with O blood group are prone to infections of Helicobacter pylori, a bacteria that causes stomach ulcers. AB blood group is less prone to such infections.
  • Type A blood group people are prone to gastric cancer or stomach cancer.
  • Type O blood group have lower level of certain blood clotting factor, so they are at higher level of death risk due to trauma.
  • People with O blood type are at less risk of heart diseases as their blood clots lesser than A or B blood group.
  • AB blood group people are at higher risk of stroke as their blood clots more.
  • Average life span of O blood group people is highest due to lesser heart diseases.
  • A, B, or AB blood group are more prone to Venous thromboembolism (VTE), in which blood clots in a deep vein in legs. O blood group people are mostly safe from this disease.
  • Memory problems, such as dementia often occur more among people with AB blood group.
  • People with A blood group have high level of cortisol, thus more stress.
  • Type 2 Diabetes is more common among A and B blood groups.
  • Women with O blood group are found to have lower number of healthy eggs, which plays an important role in getting pregnant. However this result need more research to find the actual reason.
  • Some studies have suggested that smallpox pandemics were fatal for O blood group and non-fatal for A blood group. 
  • During 1996, 87.5% of patients who died due to cholera pandemic in Scotland were of O blood group.

Some experts who believe in "Ancient Aliens" think that Rh- humans are hybrids of humans and aliens, as some of them have extra rib and extra vertebrae. However most of the medical societies don't believe this alien hybrid theory.

Did you get the answer to question about the best blood group ? Is it NO ! You are right, no one blood group can be considered best. Betterhealthfacts.com found that each blood group have its own pros and cons. But this diversity of blood groups provided us with a better chance of survival as a race. We as an individual might want to prove ourselves better than others on the basis of blood group, but in front of nature we "the humans" are just a race. Even if one type of blood group people surrender to a bacteria or virus, the other group continues to evolve. This is true evolution and our blood group is also evolving, we just can't see it in a single generation.

What do you think about this article. Please mention your blood group with you comments. Your one comment motivates betterhealthfacts.com to post more health oriented articles.

Are you Right handed or Left handed ? Which one is better !

Being right-handed or left-handed is something natural, and we can't do much about it. Just as we can't choose our gender, we also can't choose our dominant hand. But nature is not so neutral about dominant hand as 90% population is right-handed, while just 10% are left handed. Only 1% population can be called ambidextrous. Ambidexterity is the ability to use both hands equally. Does it mean that ambidextrous people are better than both right handed and left handed people. If it is so, then why all of us are not evolved to be ambidextrous ? Betterhealthfacts.com will try to answer this question in this article.

Is there any difference in our genes that makes us righty, lefty or ambidextrous?
Genetics explains a lot of things but in case of dominant hand, it is a bit confusing. Till now researchers have not not found a single genetic locus ( a genetic marker) that can be held responsible for being right-handed or left handed. You will be surprised to know that when scientists studied 25,732 families with twins, they found that heritability of handedness is roughly 24%. In a normal case if both parents are left-handed then their are 74% chances for the child being right-handed. So our heredity has got very less to do with our dominant hand.
Ambidexterity is the ability to use both hands with equal perfection. Some experts believe that it is just a practice which makes people perfect in using both hands, but most of the ambidextrous people prefer to use their original hand when they are in hurry to complete a work.

What decides which dominant hand will a child have ?
  • Genetic factors can answer only 25% of such behavior, remaining 75% are the environmental factors.
  • Some researchers believe that position of a baby in final trimester decides the dominant hand. 
  • Premature babies are five times more likely to be left-handed.
  • A mother aged above 40 years is 120% more likely to a left-handed child.

Why are there more right handed people ?
According to Stanley Coren, Professor of Psychology at the University of British Columbia, more right-hand dominance is unique to humans. Other animals have 50-50 chances of side dominance, even the chimpanzees. One possible reason behind it our developed brain and our ability to speak. During evolution our brain divided itself in different regions to control different functions of body. Precise or more accurate tasks are mostly done by left side of brain, which also controls right side of body. This is the reason why most of us are right-handed.

Is left-hand dominance a disease ?
According to Professor Coren, "Yes". If during the final phases of pregnancy if sufficient blood supply is interrupted to left side of developing brain, then right brain tends to capture some of its functions and thus a person becomes left-handed by birth. Some other researches, especially left-handed, don't agree with this theory, as there have been a number of world famous personalities in different fields who have shown their brilliance.
According to Professor Coren, left handed people are more vulnerable to diseases and may also have learning difficulties, which also makes them criminals, schizophrenics and alcoholics. Here are some figures that he provided in his book "The Left-Hander Syndrome".
  • Left-handers are 11.5 times more prone to suffer from hay fever and asthma.
  • Eczema and diabetes is more common in left-handed people.
  • Left handers are three times more prone to depression and suicide.
  • Insomnia and cross-eyedness is two times more common in left handers.
  • Deafness is 2.5 times more among left handers.
  • Left handers are 4 times more prone to being Alcoholic as an adult.
  • Dyslexia is 11 times more common among left handers. 
  • Average age of left-handed men is 10 years less than right-handed men, while left-handed women live 4 years less.
  • A study done in 1921 found that there were only 7% left handed children in normal school, while there were 17% left handed children in schools for mentally retarded.
Contrary to the above facts, several left handed people achieved a place in society and history that we can never forget. Some of them are:
Mark Zuckerberg, Albert Einstein, Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Picasso, Charlie Chaplin,Leonardo Da Vinci,  Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, Mahatma Gandhi, Isaac Newton, Neil Armstrong, Aristotle, Sachin Tendulkar, Amitabh Bachchan and the list can go on.

Do these facts really prove anything or it is just a way to prove that one kind of humans are better than others. Being left handed might be a disease ( as Professor Coren wrote in his book), but it does not mean that left-handers are anyway less intelligent or creative than their right-handed counterparts. Instead left handers live a tougher life than most of the right handers as most of the day-to-day tools, such as potato peeler, pencil sharpner, corkscrews, scissors and many more are designed for right-handed usage. Even our languages consider right as right and left as wrong.

Lefties overwork on their talents to prove themselves, which makes them even better in several cases. Our mind and brain are much beyond than what we know. According to betterhealthfacts.com, we still need more research to know the reasons behind being left-handed. In the mean time we should make this world more friendly to left-handers by making ambidextrous tools. There is no answer, to the question that which handed people are better. It is the work with these hands that makes us a better person. 

In the end you must know that human brain is brilliant, it can prove whatever it wants. Sometimes we just want to prove our preconceived notions. A researcher, who wants to prove left-handers are less brilliant, might say that 17% children in mentally retarded school were left-handed. But here he is ignoring the fact that remaining 83% are still right-handed.

Do you avoid Rice and Potato due to Diabetes ?

You must have seen people avoiding to eat rice or potato, as it may elevate their blood sugar. This is a common practice among diabetic people. What if i tell you that a diabetic person don't need to do that. Yes, you heard it right. A diabetic person may eat rice or potato without any negative impact, but "how" is the key. Lets not make it a puzzle and make it simple.

All of us have different metabolic system and different digestive system. Same food is digested in a different way in different people. It is because of the difference in gut bacteria, most of which are good bacteria. Our body is host for millions of bacteria, which are not just dependent on what we eat, but they are also responsible for digesting the food. A slight difference in type and count of these bacteria, impacts the outcome of the food, in terms of both calories and nutrients. All food items increase the blood sugar, but their scale differs. Similarly how the food is digested also matters, which is never taken into consideration. Most of us are simply living around a myth that potatoes are bad, as it may increase the blood sugar.

Dietitians use Glycemic Index(GI) to measure the blood glucose spiking capability of a food item. Usually carbohydrates are responsible increasing the blood sugar, so GI of carbohydrate-rich foods is high. Potatoes are one of the most carbohydrate rich food. Most of the people still think that GI is the right way to judge a food item, but recent researches have shown that GI judges a food right only if that food item is consumed alone. In actual life we never eat a food item alone. We eat a mixed diet. Potatoes are often consumed with some other food item. Now researchers have found that potatoes in evening meal are better than some of the other low-GI food items. Evening meal is often considered important for type 2 diabetic people as it spikes the blood glucose in night, when there is no physical activity to consume the calories.

Similarly some researches have shown than our gut bacteria also impact the blood glucose increasing capability of different food items. Same food item affect blood glucose levels in different manner in different people irrespective of the Glycemic Index (GI) of the food. 

But if it is so then how should we judge whats better for a diabetic person to eat?

It is a tough question to answer, as it depends on your gut bacteria, your digestive health and your metabolism. Every food affects differently on every individual. So the best way to judge the right food for you requires a little knowledge of your own body. How we can do it may require some efforts and technology to gather data about your body. If you are diabetic then you should prepare a diet diary, where you write every meal ingredients. Also measure your blood glucose levels at regular intervals (using a home glucose monitor) and write it down with date and time. After collecting this data for few weeks or a month, you need to analyse that data. Here you should try to find out those food items which increase your blood glucose more and also find those food items which don't spike your blood glucose.

Now prepare your diet chart as per your analysis, so that your blood sugar don't go up. Continue your diet diary and blood glucose monitoring for further analysis. Further analysis should be a part of your life, as our gut bacteria don't always remain same, they may change with season and our diet pattern. So don't totally avoid any food item. You should eat very small quantities of even those food items which are not good as per your analysis. Totally avoiding any food item may not be a healthy practice as every food item have its own set of nutrients, which might not be there in others.

Our body is our actual residence for our whole life. Just like every house it also need some regular maintenance. So give some time to your body, listen to its needs and understand the signals that it tells you before surrendering to any disease.

We hope that this article from betterhealthfacts.com might help the diabetic people in deciding what is better for their body. In the end you should know that you don't prescribe your diet to anyone else, as that diet might not suit them. What is your view on this article, please mention it in comments section.

Laughter is a Healthy Contagious Disease

We usually take laughter just as a positive behavior which is good for human health, but it is something more than that. Laughter remained a part of human behavior even before we developed any language to speak. What is even more interesting is that we will automatically smile or laugh if we see two other people laughing, but we won't make a sad face, if we see two sad/crying people. It is because laughter is contagious.

We the humans have a basic nature of mimicking the words, expressions and behavior of the person we are speaking to. This copying nature of human brain makes us learn new skills, However mimicry is a talent that everybody can't do exactly, but it is a part of human brain and behavior. Laughter spreads because every brain tries to copy it even before you can understand the joke. But here one important thing to notice is that we mimic on positive behavior, not the negative behaviors. Some researches have shown that our facial muscles react instantly to laughter sounds, while they don't react to negative sounds like crying or screaming.

Laughter and Mimicry

Most of the comedians are those who can mimic other in the best way possible. Everybody mimics, some just do it better and make us laugh. But as we said "mimic" is a basic function of human brain which helped us evolve. It saved us from predators, as we tried tried to act like them to save ourselves.

Laughter is more social than anything else

Humans are social animal and we like to laugh when in groups while we cry alone. This fact is true for most of the people. We always like to share a good joke rather than telling someone why we are sad. Laughing together make a better bond between two people or a group of friends. You must have noticed that your best friends are those with whom you have laughed a lot. Laughter acts like cement on your social connections and make them stronger. It is very obvious that will feel close to a person, who makes you laugh.

Laughter is necessary for a healthy brain

Our brain releases dopamine, endorphins and serotonin when we laugh. These chemicals make us feel safe and at ease. Release of stress hormones like cortisol and epinephrine is greatly reduced due to laughing. These stress hormones damage the brain. So even if you are sad or tense due to something, a little laughter can put you at ease. Our brain copies laughter to save itself from damage that your life is doing to it.

Here are some facts about laughter

  • Gelotology is study of laughter and its affect on our body.
  • An average human being laughs around 15 to 30 times in a day. Females laugh a little more, while babies laugh 300 times in a day.
  • Our diaphragm spasms during laughing which makes it harder to catch your breath and we make sounds like ha-ha-ha, ho-ho-ho or he-he-he.
  • Tickling and laughter forms bonding between parent and babies.
  • Even fake laugh can make you happier.
  • Compared to being alone, we are 30 times more likely to laugh when we are with others.
  • People who laugh more are better able to tolerate pain. It doesn't matter if the pain is physical or emotional.

Good and bad times are part of life, but a good laughter can help you in passing through bad times in an easier way. So keep laughing and make others laugh too, as it is contagious, more contagious than any disease. Just keep in mind one thing that "laughing with" is always better than "laughing at".

At last one more fact : Alcohol increases the size of "LIKE & SHARE" button by 89%.  (Senseless joke like this one can even make you laugh).

Are you eating eggs while Bird Flu is spreading !

Bird Flu is spreading in different states of India, which is making people more fearful as coronavirus vaccine is still a dream for majority of population. This avian flu brought by migratory birds, also known as H5N1 avian influenza, is known as one of the most lethal of its kind. Migratory birds have infected the local birds and chicken farms, which is frightening for local population. A number of people are frightened to buy eggs or any poultry. Most of them don't know if bird flu spreads through these mediums, but still they are taking extreme precaution by avoiding these food products. Betterhealthfacts.com will try to examine if there is any truth in infection through poultry products.

Eggs and chicken are unavoidable food items in diet of non-vegetarian people, but fear of bird flu is making them sick just by thinking how they will live without eating it. H5N1 is one of the most infectious disease among birds, and can cause ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) among humans with symptoms like cough, cold, chest pain and sore throat. These flu symptoms not just make people fearful of Bird Flu, but also of COVID19.

Bird flu don't spread from humans to humans

Yes, you read it right. Bird flu don't spread from humans to humans, as coronavirus do. Only those who come in contact with dead infected birds or their feces can get infected. However it can spread among animals, which make pet owners a little worried. Human to human transmission of birdflu is rarely reported.

Can Bird flu spread through eating eggs or chicken ?

Recently WHO told in a press release that there is no need to worry, if you are eating well cooked food. Any food item that is cooked about 70 degree of temperature is safe to eat. If you are eating raw eggs in any form, then you need to rethink about it. Those who are eating meat, should make sure that they are getting fresh meat, not the meat of dead diseased animal or bird. Well cooked meat is usually safe as the harmful virus, bacteria and other pathogens can't survive in higher temperature.

To be on safer side, if you can't stop yourself from eating eggs and meat, then you should follow some precautionary measures like handling raw products with proper hygiene. Wash your hands with soap after handling these raw products and don't touch your face while handling them, just like you did to avoid coronavirus.

Are vegetarians and vegans on safer side ?

A vegetarian or vegan may think so, but they are not entirely safe. However they may think that avoiding eggs and meat will save them, but there are several other factors that can infect you. Bird droppings and their feces may infect you when you are outdoor. If you have pets at home, it may get infected when you take them for a walk, which can further infect you.

So all of us need to take some precautions and if you find some dead birds or animals then never touch them and immediately report it to authorities.

Will COVID19 Vaccine end Common Cold among Humans?

4 different types of coronavirus cause common cold. Researches are being done from past 80 years, but no successful vaccine was ever created against coronavirus. COVID19 vaccine has provided a hope that it might end the common cold that is caused due to coronavirus. Most of the times the very last common cold infection is the one that kills you. Common cold is often linked to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma, which is sometimes fatal in infants and old age people.

Some people are very optimistic and think that common cold and flu will be totally flushed out from earth as soon as the COVID19 vaccine will arrive. However as per our research this is just a mere imagination. We will tell you why.

Common Cold and Flu are different.

First of all, you should understand that common cold is totally different from seasonal flu. Seasonal flu is caused due to influenza virus, which is of four types A, B, C and D. We have have got flu vaccine which needs to be given every year as new stains of influenza arrive every year, thus getting flu vaccine only have 60% chances of saving you from flu.

Common Cold is caused due to coronavirus, rhinovirus, arainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and metapneumovirus. These virus families have got 200 different virus variants. Usually a vaccine prevents only against a specific virus, not a complete family.

Most of the common cold infections are due to rhinovirus. Only 15% common cold cases can be blamed on coronavirus. So even if COVID19 vaccine work on whole family of coronavirus (while it is meant only for SARS-CoV-2), then only 15% common cold cases should be considered as gone.

Even after the COVID19 vaccine will be launched in different countries, you can't expect from everyone to get vaccinated. It is because some people believe that they are super-human and have auto-immunity against this virus. Some people don't want vaccination due to their political beliefs, while some are sure with their wrong belief that the vaccine is fake. All these hurdles will never make vaccination a 100% success.

We hope that after reading the above short article you will understand that more than 85% of common cold cases will still be there even after treating COVID19 at a global level. So rest assured, you will definitely get common cold several times in your life even after getting COVID19 vaccine. 

The good news in that spread of common cold and your chances of getting it is definitely less now. It is not due to COVID19 vaccine but due to masks, sanitizers and social-distancing that are now a part of our lives. A lot of people have noticed that they have not suffered from common cold due to these precautionary measures during this pandemic. 

Fear of COVID19 made people 

  • adopt healthy lifestyle
  • eat healthy food including immunity boosters
  • regular exercise or yoga
  • give-up smoking and drinking alcohol
  • reduce weight and correct their BMI
  • adopt hygienic environment

These positive steps in life of a number of people have improved their immunity and also saved them from common cold. Common cold is a harsh reality of human life which is not going to end soon, but its occurrence will definitely be reduced.

Why Healthy Athletes suffer from Heart Attack ?

 A few days ago, Sourav Ganguly, former Indian Cricket Captain and present chief of BCCI, suffered a heart attack. He is a perfectly healthy guy (by looks), and often seen in advertisements of healthy oil, soya chunk and sports shoes. In all of these advertisements he advises people about healthy lifestyle and making better choices about what they eat. Sourav is seen as a fitness enthusiast, but as soon as news of his heart attack spread in the media, "healthy oil" halted the further airing of his advertisements.

Sourav was diagnosed with blockages in three coronary arteries, one of which was successfully treated with a stent. He is fine now and may get discharge from hospital in a day or two. In a few months you might see him in some health insurance advertisements (a joke which might come true). This whole episode arises a question in mind that how a healthy looking 48 year old athletic person can suffer from cardiac arrest. We will try to find an answer to this question. 

We often think that a healthy lifestyle and nutritional diet is sufficient to live a healthy life. But it is not so. Human body is a very complex machine which not just depends on the food and exercise but several other factors, which are beyond our control, affect it. If you have ever met with an accident due to someone else's mistake, then you can better understand it.

Now we will tell you some heart health conditions which are beyond your control.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) : is a health condition in which the heart muscles grow thick and obstruct the normal pumping process of heart. In most of the people suffering from HCM, septum (the muscular wall between ventricles) becomes thicker. HCM is a genetic condition which is beyond control and your healthy lifestyle and diet have nothing to do with it. This heart health condition shows symptoms like irregular heart beat, shortness of breath, chest pain or fainting during exercise.

Myofiber Disarray : It is also a genetic condition in which heart muscles are not properly aligned and result in irregular heartbeat. It can trigger a condition know as arrhythmia, in which the heart either beats too fast or too slow with an irregular rhythm. Myofiber Disarray is common among people suffering from HCM.

Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) : is a hole in heart between the two upper chambers. This condition is common in all newborn babies, but the hole closes within a few months after birth. One in five adults is not so lucky and often lives a normal life except some cases where the size of the hole the hole is larger and create some disturbing side effects. Know More about Patent Foramen Ovale.

Calcification : 99% of calcium in our body remains in the form of bones and teeth, but 1% may remain in blood. In some cases it may get deposited at a place inside arteries and create blockages. Such blockages are hard to remove and can't be opened using stent, and require surgical intervention. Know more about Calcification in Arteries.

Bacteria inside arteries: Some bacterial lipids get deposited inside arteries and cause blockages that can cause heart attack. Our immune system usually considers such blockages as foreign material inside body and cause swelling in that area, which worsens the problem. These bacterial deposits inside arteries are entirely different from cholesterol deposits. Know more about bacterial deposits inside arteries.

Lack of Sleep / Disturbed Sleep / Snoring : Snoring disturbs our sleep and releases stress hormones. Same thing happens due to lack of sleep. Stress hormones increase our heart beat and directly affect our heart health. Untreated snoring and lack of sleep due to any reason may sometimes become a reason behind heart attack.

Tight Clothing: Tight clothing is fashion trend among youngsters which sometimes puts excess pressure on our blood vessels and blood flow. In several cases it has caused heart attack by making our heart work harder for longer duration. Know more about Heart diseases due to tight clothing.

Sometimes there are more than one reason behind heart problems. So if you feel that you are healthy with correct BMI and need not to care about heart health, then rethink about these issues and react on time. Some of these issues are beyond our control, as no matter what we do, we can't change our genes. We don't know what might be the exact reason Sourav Ganguly's heart attack, but we hope that betterhealthfacts.com has given you some new knowledge about heart related issues.

DNA Mystery : 99.9% Same DNA in all human beings

We, the human beings, have divided ourselves among different races but biologically we all identical twins. As the title of this article says "All human beings have 99.9% same DNA". This fact is very interesting as people of different races, or different continents look very much different from outer appearance, but if we look at DNA then we find that they are almost same. 99.9 is almost 100 percent. Does this 0.1% makes all the difference between any two people ? Are your genes 99.9% similar to Albert Einstein ? Such thoughts make us feel that there must be something wrong here. You must have DNA matching in crime investigation movies/tv serials. If we all are 99.9% same, then how DNA matching is possible. BetterHealthFacts.com will try to answer these questions in this article.

99.9% same DNA in all Humans

We have got 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each pair is made by one chromosome from both parents. Each of these chromosome contain a DNA which is more than one inch in length, but it sits inside a chromosome which is just 1/1000 inch in length. It is one of the best examples of natural engineering that such lengthy microscopic entity folds itself so many times without getting tangled. We have got 46 such entities in each cell of our body. So the total length of DNA inside a single cell is around 1.5 meter. Our body has got around 37 trillion cells and all of them have exactly same DNA, but cells in different body parts differ a lot in function and look. Neuron, muscle, nerve, RBC, WBC are different type of cells with exactly same DNA. So same DNA does not mean that their appearance and function will be same. Same applies of human bodies as well. What differs in DNA, even within cells is the gene-expression.

Interesting facts about DNA, Genes and Chromosomes

What is Gene Expression ?

We have 20000 to 30000 genes in each cell. Our forty-six chromosomes contain about six billion base pairs. Size of each gene may differ from few hundred base pairs to few thousand base pairs. All of these genes are never active. Just one third of these genes remain active in brain cells. It is called gene expression. Different type of cells in our body have different gene expression. 

However two different human beings have 99.9% same DNA, but their gene expression may differ a lot, which not only changes their appearance traits but also their thinking and intellectual capabilities. So now you know why being 99.9% similar to Einstein's DNA don't give you similar looks or intelligent quotient.

Can our brain turn Genes ON and OFF ?

Being 99.9% same makes us humans. If we differ more then our looks will differ a lot. You will understand it if you look at human DNA comparison with other beings.

  • DNA of human beings and chimpanzees is 98.7 percent same.
  • Gorillas and humans share about 98.4% DNA
  • Orangutans share 96.9 percent of their DNA with humans.
  • Rhesus monkeys and humans share about 93 percent DNA.
  • Cat shares 90 percent of its DNA with humans.
  • Mice and humans share, on average, about 85 percent of their DNA.
  • 84 percent of Dog DNA matches with humans. 
  • Cows and Humans have 80% same DNA.
  • Fruit flies and Humans are genetically 61% identical.
  • Chicken DNA is 60% similar to humans.
  • Human DNA is 50% similar to Plants, and 60% similar to Banana.

After reading about so much similarity. You must be thinking about DNA matching (or DNA Profiling), which is done several movies to identify the criminals.

DNA Profiling (DNA Fingerprinting)

Although human DNAs match 99.9% and you may feel that it is hard to judge if two samples are perfect match, but after technological advancement 100% DNA profiling can be attained. Very first usage of DNA matching was done in 1980s. However it is hard to identify difference between genetically identical twins using this technique. 

At the end of this article we must say that human beings are much beyond just DNA as two genetically identical twins may develop into distinct individuals. What influences our gene expression is a matter of vast research. Is it our diet, our habitat, our atmosphere, our thoughts or our upbringing. Almost all of us have got 2 eyes, 2 legs, 2 hands and 1 brain, but everybody have got a distinct way to use them. 

Orthostatic Hypotension : Low Blood Pressure as you Stand up

Orthostatic Hypotension is a form of low blood pressure which occurs when a person stands up from sitting or lying posture. In medical terms, if systolic blood pressure decreases by 20mmHg or diastolic blood pressure decreases by 10mmHg within 3 minutes of standing up from sitting or lying posture then it can be diagnosed as Orthostatic Hypotension (also known as Postural Hypotension). Usually it occurs due to old age, but there are various other medical reasons which make it happen. Here we will try to understand them and know if it can be treated.

Orthostatic Hypotension can make you feel dizzy or lightheaded as you stand up. If such episodes occur for less than a few minutes after standing up, then it is considered as mild symptoms, but if it occurs more often or last for longer duration than you should immediately consult a doctor. In some cases it can make you faint, so it should be taken seriously.

Baroreflex is our body's homeostatic mechanism which keeps our blood pressure at nearly same readings, in whatever posture we are. Baroreceptors (a part of autonomic nervous system) senses the stretch in blood vessels as our body posture changes and our brain increases or decreases pulse rate and blood pressure to keep it at an optimum level.

How Orthostatic Hypotension happens ?

When stand up suddenly, gravity comes into action and pools the blood in our legs and abdominal region, which decreases the blood pressure in upper body. In a healthy person baroreceptors located near heart and neck, sense this lower blood pressure and increase the pulse rate to take blood pressure to an optimum level. Usually this whole action get started within seconds and a healthy person don't even notice anything. But if this thing takes a little longer and blood pressure remains on lower side even after 2 to 3 minutes then it is considered as Orthostatic Hypotension.

There may be various reasons behind Orthostatic Hypotension, some of which can be easily treated or avoided but some reasons are related to medical conditions. Here we have tried to list all of the common reasons behind Orthostatic Hypotension .

  • Dehydration : Dehydration is lack of water in our body, which decreases the total volume of blood thus causing low blood pressure. Dehydration can be caused by not drinking enough water, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, a lot of sweating or too much exercising without drinking any fluid. Orthostatic Hypotension caused due to dehydration can be treated and avoided by drinking enough water throughout the day.
  • Heart Problems : Bradycardia, a medical condition of low heart rate can cause low blood pressure while standing up. Similarly heart valve problems, heart attack and heart failure can cause Orthostatic Hypotension.
  • Nervous system disorders : Our body's blood pressure is controlled by baroreflex, which is regulated by our nervous system. So nervous system disorders can directly affect our body's ability to control ups and downs of blood pressure.
  • Diabetes: Diabetes damages our nervous system and may damage those nerves that regulate blood pressure. Chances of orthostatic hypotension increases in long term patients of diabetes.
  • Endocrine Disorders: Endrocrine glands system play an important role in proper functioning of our body by secreting a number of hormones as per need of body. Hormone disorders can cause diseases like diabetes and nervous system damage, which may also cause orthostatic hypotension.  
  • Low blood pressure after eating meals (also known as postprandial hypotension) can also cause orthostatic hypotension.
  • Lengthy bed rest on regular basis is also considered as a possible reason behind orthostatic hypotension.

Some reasons like dehydration and lengthy bed rests can be avoided or treated ourselves but for other possible reasons it is necessary to see a doctor and treat the actual medical condition.

Orthostatic Hypertension : Increase in Blood Pressure as you Stand up

As the title suggests, Orthostatic Hypertension is a rise in systolic blood pressure due to sudden change in body posture like standing up. It is also known as Postural Hypertension. According to medical guidelines if your systolic blood pressure rises by 20mmHg as you stand up from sitting posture, then you are suffering from Orthostatic Hypertension. Here we will discuss the possible reasons of this medical condition and its treatment.

Baroreflex is our body's homeostatic mechanism which keeps our blood pressure at nearly same readings, in whatever posture we are. Baroreceptors (a part of autonomic nervous system) senses the stretch in blood vessels as our body posture changes and our brain increases or decreases pulse rate and blood pressure to keep it at an optimum level.

What causes Orthostatic Hypertension ?

There are various reasons behind Orthostatic Hypertension. Some of them are listed here.

  • Age: The prevalence of Orthostatic Hypertension increases with age. 16.3% of older hypertension patients suffer with Orthostatic Hypertension as well. Among general population above 20 years of age, prevalence of Orthostatic Hypertension is around 1.1%.
  • Essential Hypertension: is a type of hypertension due to no known reasons. Patients of Essential hypertension are also prone to Orthostatic Hypertension.
  • Type 2 Diabetes is also a major cause of Orthostatic Hypertension as diabetes causes nervous system damage.
  • Excessive venous pooling: Venous pooling is a normal phenomena as blood pools in the legs and abdominal area due to gravitational pull. But excessive venous pooling results in less cardiac output. It can increase pulse rate and blood pressure while standing up, thus causing Orthostatic Hypertension.
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Hypovolemia
  • Renal arterial stenosis (narrowing of the kidney arteries)
  • Aortitis (inflammation of the aorta)
  • Pheochromocytoma

Risks : Orthostatic Hypertension increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and stroke.

Diagnosis : Orthostatic Hypertension can be diagnosed through tilt table test.

Treatment : There is no proven treatment of Orthostatic Hypertension due to various reasons associated with it. Hit and trial method is generally adopted by treating the underlying reason behind this disease, which differs from person to person.