### Women in Mathematics: A Brief History

Although women have been involved in mathematics for centuries, their contributions to the field have often been overlooked or marginalized. In ancient Greece, for example, the mathematician Hypatia was known for her work on geometry and astronomy but was killed by a mob for her beliefs. During the Renaissance, women like Maria Agnesi and Emilie du Chatelet made significant contributions to mathematics, but their work was often attributed to male colleagues or ignored altogether.

It was not until the 19th century that women began to gain more recognition for their mathematical achievements. Ada Lovelace, a British mathematician and writer, is often considered the world's first computer programmer for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Lovelace was also the first to recognize that computers could be used for more than just number crunching and that they had the potential to generate music and other forms of art.

In the early 20th century, women like Emmy Noether, Sofia Kovalevskaya, and Mary Cartwright made important contributions to abstract algebra, partial differential equations, and chaos theory, respectively. Noether's theorem, which relates to the symmetry of physical systems, is a fundamental principle of modern physics, while Kovalevskaya's theorem relates to the existence of periodic solutions for differential equations and has important applications in celestial mechanics and other areas. Cartwright's work on the butterfly effect and chaos theory has revolutionized our understanding of complex systems and has important applications in meteorology, economics, and other fields.

Shakuntala Devi was an Indian mathematical prodigy born in Bangalore in 1929. From a young age, she demonstrated exceptional mental calculation abilities, solving complex mathematical problems at an incredible speed. She became known as the "Human Computer" and amazed audiences with her ability to perform complex calculations faster than a computer. In 1950, she demonstrated her skills at the University of Mysore, where she solved a difficult math problem that took several minutes for professors to solve, in just seconds. Shakuntala Devi went on to perform at numerous events and competitions, earning her a place in the Guinness Book of World Records in 1982 for correctly multiplying two 13-digit numbers in just 28 seconds.

More recently, women like Karen Uhlenbeck and Maryam Mirzakhani have continued to push the boundaries of mathematics. Uhlenbeck, an American mathematician, was awarded the Abel Prize in 2019 for her work on geometric analysis and gauge theory. Mirzakhani, an Iranian mathematician, was the first woman to win the Fields Medal, one of the most prestigious awards in mathematics, for her work on the geometry and dynamics of Riemann surfaces and their moduli spaces. Unfortunately, Mirzakhani passed away in 2017 at the age of 40 from breast cancer, but her contributions to mathematics will continue to inspire future generations.

### Challenges Faced by Women in Mathematics

Despite the significant contributions that women have made to mathematics, they have faced many challenges in pursuing careers in the field. One of the most significant obstacles is the lack of female role models and mentors. When women do not see other women in mathematics, it can be difficult to envision themselves pursuing a career in the field, and they may feel isolated or excluded.

Another challenge is the unconscious bias that exists in the field, which can make it more difficult for women to advance in their careers. Studies have shown that both men and women have a tendency to underestimate the abilities of women in mathematics and to attribute their success to factors like luck or hard work rather than innate talent.

In addition to these societal and cultural factors, women also face practical obstacles like balancing work and family responsibilities. Because mathematics is a demanding andtime-consuming field, it can be difficult for women to balance the demands of their careers with their family and personal lives. This can make it more difficult for them to pursue tenure-track positions or other high-level positions in academia or industry.

### Gender Representation in Mathematics

Despite these challenges, women have made significant progress in mathematics in recent years. According to data from the National Science Foundation, the proportion of women earning bachelor's degrees in mathematics has increased from 35% in 1995 to 44% in 2019. Women have also made gains in graduate-level mathematics programs, although they remain underrepresented in some subfields like computer science and engineering.

In terms of employment, women are still underrepresented in tenured or tenure-track positions in mathematics. According to data from the American Mathematical Society, women make up only 14% of tenured or tenure-track faculty in mathematics departments in the US. Women are also underrepresented in leadership positions in mathematics organizations and conferences.

### Efforts to Increase Diversity in Mathematics

Recognizing the importance of diversity in mathematics, many organizations and institutions are working to increase the representation of women and other underrepresented groups in the field. The Association for Women in Mathematics, for example, provides resources and support for women in mathematics and works to increase their visibility in the field. The National Science Foundation and other funding agencies have also launched programs to support the recruitment and retention of women and other underrepresented groups in mathematics.

In addition to these efforts, many mathematicians are working to address the unconscious bias that exists in the field. This includes recognizing and challenging stereotypes about women's abilities in mathematics, as well as providing more opportunities for women to showcase their work and collaborate with colleagues.

The contributions of women to mathematics have been overlooked and undervalued for far too long. However, recent research has challenged the assumption that women are less capable than men in mathematics, and there is growing recognition of the important role that women have played in the field throughout history.

Despite the challenges that women continue to face in pursuing careers in mathematics, there are many organizations and individuals working to increase diversity and inclusion in the field. By recognizing the importance of diversity and challenging biases and stereotypes, we can ensure that mathematics remains a vibrant and inclusive field that welcomes and values the contributions of all mathematicians, regardless of gender or background.

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