DNA Mystery : 99.9% Same DNA in all human beings

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We, the human beings, have divided ourselves among different races but biologically we all identical twins. As the title of this article says "All human beings have 99.9% same DNA". This fact is very interesting as people of different races, or different continents look very much different from outer appearance, but if we look at DNA then we find that they are almost same. 99.9 is almost 100 percent. Does this 0.1% makes all the difference between any two people ? Are your genes 99.9% similar to Albert Einstein ? Such thoughts make us feel that there must be something wrong here. You must have seen DNA matching in crime investigation movies/tv serials. If we all are 99.9% same, then how DNA matching is possible. BetterHealthFacts.com will try to answer these questions in this article.

99.9% same DNA in all Humans

We have got 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each pair is made by one chromosome from both parents. Each of these chromosome contain a DNA which is more than one inch in length, but it sits inside a chromosome which is just 1/1000 inch in length. It is one of the best examples of natural engineering that such lengthy microscopic entity folds itself so many times without getting tangled. We have got 46 such entities in each cell of our body. So the total length of DNA inside a single cell is around 1.5 meter. Our body has got around 37 trillion cells and all of them have exactly same DNA, but cells in different body parts differ a lot in function and look. Neuron, muscle, nerve, RBC, WBC are different type of cells with exactly same DNA. So same DNA does not mean that their appearance and function will be same. Same applies of human bodies as well. What differs in DNA, even within cells is the gene-expression.

Interesting facts about DNA, Genes and Chromosomes

What is Gene Expression ?

We have 20000 to 30000 genes in each cell. Our forty-six chromosomes contain about six billion base pairs. Size of each gene may differ from few hundred base pairs to few thousand base pairs. All of these genes are never active. Just one third of these genes remain active in brain cells. It is called gene expression. Different type of cells in our body have different gene expression. 

However two different human beings have 99.9% same DNA, but their gene expression may differ a lot, which not only changes their appearance traits but also their thinking and intellectual capabilities. So now you know why being 99.9% similar to Einstein's DNA don't give you similar looks or intelligent quotient.

Can our brain turn Genes ON and OFF ?

Being 99.9% same makes us humans. If we differ more then our looks will differ a lot. You will understand it if you look at human DNA comparison with other beings.

  • DNA of human beings and chimpanzees is 98.7 percent same.
  • Gorillas and humans share about 98.4% DNA
  • Orangutans share 96.9 percent of their DNA with humans.
  • Rhesus monkeys and humans share about 93 percent DNA.
  • Cat shares 90 percent of its DNA with humans.
  • Mice and humans share, on average, about 85 percent of their DNA.
  • 84 percent of Dog DNA matches with humans. 
  • Cows and Humans have 80% same DNA.
  • Fruit flies and Humans are genetically 61% identical.
  • Chicken DNA is 60% similar to humans.
  • Human DNA is 50% similar to Plants, and 60% similar to Banana.

After reading about so much similarity. You must be thinking about DNA matching (or DNA Profiling), which is done several movies to identify the criminals.

DNA Profiling (DNA Fingerprinting)

Although human DNAs match 99.9% and you may feel that it is hard to judge if two samples are perfect match, but after technological advancement 100% DNA profiling can be attained. Very first usage of DNA matching was done in 1980s. However it is hard to identify difference between genetically identical twins using this technique. 

At the end of this article we must say that human beings are much beyond just DNA as two genetically identical twins may develop into distinct individuals. What influences our gene expression is a matter of vast research. Is it our diet, our habitat, our atmosphere, our thoughts or our upbringing. Almost all of us have got 2 eyes, 2 legs, 2 hands and 1 brain, but everybody have got a distinct way to use them. 

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