Tear Duct Blockage in Babies Treatment | Nasolacrimal Obstruction Surgery

Tear Duct Blockage or "Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction" is a common problem found in newborns. More than 5% newborn have this condition either in one eye or both. This problem can also happen in adults due to some medical reasons. Most of the people get worried if this problem affect the vision as the eye remain constantly watery due to tear duct blockage. Before understanding this medical condition we need to understand the tear duct mechanism.

Mechanism behind Tears and Tear Duct

Our eyes need constant supply of water to keep them wet. This water comes from Lacrimal Gland (also known as Tear Gland) located just above the eyelid. It secretes water into our eye. Our Eyelids work as the wiper and it not only evenly spreads the water on the surface of eye but also cleans it. Then this water goes into our nose through the Nasolacrimal Duct ( also known as Tear Duct). Then this water keeps our nose wet from inside and captures the dust in the air we are breathing in. Thus our tears solve two purpose in go. They clean our eyes and filters the air we are breathing in.

Why do Newborn have tear duct blockage ?

5 to 20 percent of newborns have tear duct blockage either in one eye or both. This percentage varies by race and location. There is a thin membrane at the both ends on the tear duct. Usually it opens on its own after birth, but in some cases it doesn't or just opens partially. Mostly it is nothing to worry about as in most of the cases the condition is resolved automatically within a year. It can cause watery eyes with conjunctivitis like symptoms and white or yellow discharge in eyes. This condition becomes notable only after two weeks of birth. Till 2 weeks there is not enough tear formation by tear gland to make eyes watery.

Treatment for Tear Duct Blockage in Newborns

Usually doctors suggest massaging the skin between eye and nose with mild pressure. They also prescribe a few eye drops and asks you to clear up any discharge in the eyes on regular basis. Any advice from the doctor should be followed. If the blockage is not cleared then doctor may suggest a minor surgery after the baby reaches the age of 6 months or a year.

Why do adults have tear duct blockage ?

There are several reasons behind tear duct blockage in adults.
  • It can happen due to some infection in eye or nose.
  • It can also happen as a result of some surgery of nasal region.
  • Sometimes it may be a hereditary problem when a nasal bone grows more and obstructs the path of Tear Duct.

Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Surgery

This surgery is recommended only if the doctor finds that massage therapy is not working to clear the obstruction. If the obstruction is not due to any infection then balloon catheter dilation is used for the treatment of both adults and babies. Different types of surgery are available to treat the obstruction and it depends on surgeon and the exact location of obstruction. So if you face this medical condition then consult a good eye specialist.

Placebo - The Pill with No Medicine

Placebo is medicine and a well known effect in the medical world known for the fake treatment, but that does not mean that it can't treat any person. Some diseases are not physical, instead psychological, where a person believes that he/she is suffering from some disease while he/she is not. In such a case doctors use Placebo, which is a pill with no medicine in it. It may be a sugar tablet or a capsule with glucose filled in it. In such a case doctor don't tell the patient that it is a Placebo, instead they admit that it is a very good medicine and it will definitely cure the patient. Very less people know about placebo, however it is a tested and experimented technique to treat some diseases.

How does Placebo treats a person ?

Most of the people find it difficult to understand that how can an empty pill with no medicine in it can treat a person. These placebo not only works on psychological diseases but some actual diseases as well. The logic behind the treatment with a placebo lies in the human brain. In past few centuries our brain was made to believe so much in medicine that we forgot the power of our will. Our self confidence can empower our body so much that it can itself treat some minor problems in body. But instead of relying on the body and brain we believe on medicine. Due to this fact, medical community decided to use the power of patients brain to treat him/her. They give a placebo and make the patient believe that it is a good medicine. In most of the cases the problem is solved as the brain get the confidence that now the disease will be gone due to that medicine. That belief makes the body work in a better way and the patient is automatically cured.

Facts about Placebo


  • Placebo is a Latin word which means "I will please".
  • Placebo effect has been measured in thousands of medical experiments.
  • When a new drug is tested for human trial, some researchers give placebo to 50% of the subjects and measure if the success rate of actual drug is more or not. In some trials the success rate of placebo was found better.
  • In a drug trial of a cough medicine, the result concluded that 85% of subjects were successfully treated with placebo, while just 15% was the success rate of actual medicine.
  • Drug companies are made to show that their drug works better than a placebo.
  • The Color and size of a placebo also have effect of their success rate.
  • A Capsule creates a better placebo effect than a tablet. An injection creates better effect than a capsule. And two tablets work better than one. However all of them have same ingredient (mostly sugar) but still the placebo effect varies by these factors.
  • Placebos are used by doctors for Parkinson's disease, depression, anxiety, fatigue.
  • The exact mechanism behind placebo effect is unknown, but some people believe that the mechanism is self-healing property of human body and the evolutionary biology.
  • Placebo analgesia is treating pain with help of a placebo.

If you believe that a medicine will cure you then even a placebo can work, but if you believe that no medicine can cure you then even a real one won't work.

Pesticides in Food and its effect on Life

Pesticides were designed to kill those pests that affect the production of crops, fruits and vegetables. But just like antibiotics which kill a wide variety of bacteria irrespective of either that bacteria is good or bad for humans, pesticides target something more than just harmful pests. Some studies found that pesticides affect the count of bees, which are necessary for pollination. Some pesticides are feared to cause cancer in humans. In United States during year 1996 FQPA (Food Quality Protection Act) directed EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)  to completely reassess pesticide residues on food, keeping the safety of children in mind. From 1996 to 2006 EPA has cancelled or restricted the use of 270 pesticides to keep the children and adults of United States safe.

What is permissible pesticide residue level ?
Permissible pesticide residue level is that level of pesticide residue on a food which can be considered safe for eating. Once the pesticide is sprayed on a food item/plant in fields, the pesticide stays in certain amount either inside that food or on its outer surface. After some time ranging from days to weeks spent by that food item under the sun and then washed before getting into the retail stores, the pesticide level is decreased to a great extent. At that time the amount of pesticide measured on that food is known as pesticide residue level. If it falls under the permissible limit then its considered safe to eat.

Almost half of all vegetables produced contain traces of pesticides. According to some critics even the permissible amount of pesticide residue is harmful, especially when we get them as a cocktail from different products.

Pesticides effect on Animals

We human be might not be directly exposed to pesticides, but rural animals and other wildlife is directly affected. The milk we drink comes from Cow and Buffaloes who are exposed to the pesticides as their food is that plant which is also grown with help of pesticides. Bees are useful in pollination of not just crops but several other plants necessary for wildlife, but pesticides can also affect the central nervous system of bees. The underground water and soil of farming fields also get contaminated with pesticides. The birds that feed on insects and plants in such areas also get affected. The negative health effects of pesticides also affect animals and birds. Some of the negative health effects are

  • reproductive effects
  • birth defects
  • cancer
  • endocrine disruption
  • neurotoxicity
  • kidney damage
  • liver damage
  • developmental changes
  • hormonal imbalance


Pesticide usage in USA and the World

However governments take step to keep people safe from dangerous chemicals used in the agriculture and production sector, but the truth is that still people fall prey to negative effects of such chemicals. Pesticides are one of such chemicals. You may find yourself safe by reading the guidelines of EPA about the pesticides usage, but EPA can't control whole world. Those of you who visit foreign countries where there is no such guidelines, what about those countries. Those harmful chemicals which can't be sold in USA, can be easily sold in other parts of globe.

Market vs Health

Some advocates of pesticides claim that Pesticides help in increased production and also beautify the look of fruits and vegetables, which helps in keeping the prices down. It may be good for economy but not for the health of consumers.

Today world needs pesticide free farming to provide a disease free life to next generations. We should bring organic methods of farming into trend and do some research in that field in spite of developing new pesticides every year and making bugs more resistant.

Your Hobby can Improve your Health

Yes, its true ! Your Hobby can improve your health to a great extent. However it can't save your from flu or Cancer but it can improve your overall health. Your hobby can be anything ranging from outdoor activities or doing something creative which satisfies you. No matter what your hobby is ! There may be more than one ! You should spare some time for that hobby to improve your health and improve yourself.
When we get engaged in some hobby, no matter how hectic it is, we don't get tired. Instead we feel something fresh inside us after spending some time with it. This feeling is the key to being in good health after following your hobby.

How does your hobby improve your health ?

The answer to this question can be given in a single line as there are various factors related to it which affect our overall health. We will tell you about these factors in the following points. Here we bigin.

  • Some Hobbies are health activities itself: Some people have got hobbies like swimming, cycling, power lifting, gardening or walking. All such health activities as a hobby can easily improve your health. A health activity done with your own willingness can benefit you more. Suppose Person X don't like swimming, but he swims daily unwillingly just because someone told him that it will improve his health. On the other hand Person Y likes swimming as a hobby and swims for same amount of time as Person X. Who do u think will be benefited more ? The answer is person Y. However both X and Y burned similar number of calories but the Person Y also got a feel good feeling from swimming which provided him/her a bit more health benefit. So follow your heart.
  • It gives you a break with a purpose: Sometime you need a break from your routine job and daily work. However some people think that taking some rest is sufficient, but those who take a break by following a hobby utilize that break in a better way. The purpose attained though that hobby might by just some physical workout to lower your weight, or some creative art to make you happy, but one thing is certain that it makes you happy.
  • Eustress: Usually we are familiar with the word "Stress" which is something negative and related to numerous diseases. But Eustress is positive stress, which makes you feel excited about your hobby. Suppose your hobby is photography and sometimes you struggle hard to get a good shot, then the stress you go through is Eustress. As soon as you get a good shot that stress turns into happiness. Your work related stress can give you that happiness unless your work is your hobby.
  • Hobbies let you live in present: Most of us either dwell on the past or worry about the future, instead of living in the present. But your hobby makes you live in present which is most important to remain healthy. Your hobby gives your mind a break from thinking about past or future.
  • Saves you free Depression: Engaging in activities that makes you happy can save you from depression. Following your hobby lowers your blood pressure, BMI and waist circumference. Some studies have found that engaging yourself in your hobbies can save you from memory problems in old age.


All hobbies have some emotional, mental and physical health benefits. It does not take a huge amount of time to follow your hobby, sometime just a small break is sufficient. Some people think that hobbies are only for billionaires which is not true. Billionaires might have expensive hobbies but happiness can't be purchased by money. So follow your hobby. It is worth sparing some time from your busy schedule.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection Symptoms and Treatment

Vibrio Vulnificus is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, isolated as a disease causing agent in 1976. It a rod-shaped bacteria mostly found in marine environment. Vibrio Vulnificus is related to Vibrio Cholera, which is the bacteria that causes Cholera.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection mostly occurs in marine environment or by eating sea food, especially shellfish or oysters. This infection can occur through contaminated food or through some open wound exposed to contaminated water. If this infection spreads into blood stream then it can be a life threatening condition. People with weak immune system or chronic liver disease are more prone to Vibrio Vulnificus Infection. This infection have a mortality rate around 25% . On an average 90 cases of this infection are reported to CDC every year.

Types of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection


  • Acute gastroenteritis: This infection occurs after eating seafood especially uncooked shellfish or oysters. Infected food can't be distinguished by its appearance, taste and odor. 
  • Necrotizing wound infections: Vibrio Vulnificus can enter the body of a human being through an open wound. If injured skin is exposed to contaminated water the this bacteria can enter into body through it. Puncture wounds due to spines of fished such as tilapia, catfish or stingrays can cause such type of infection.  
  • Invasive septicemia: If Vibrio Vulnificus enters the blood stream of a person with weak immune system then it is Invasive septicemia. This type of infection is most severe one and mortality rate is upto 50%. It can also occur in people with chronic liver disease. Most of the people with this type of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection die within 48 hours after infection.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection Symptoms

Symptoms of  Vibrio Vulnificus Infection are different for different types of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection.

  • Vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain are symptoms of Acute gastroenteritis.
  • Blistering skin lesions are found in people suffering from Necrotizing wound infections or Invasive septicemia.
  • Septic shock (decreased blood pressure) can occur in Invasive septicemia which can lead to death sometimes.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection Treatment


  • First successful documented treatment of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection was done in 1995. That treatment was done with Fortaz and intravenous (IV) Cipro and IV doxycycline.
  • Quinolone or intravenous doxycycline with ceftazidime are recommended by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and AMA (American Medical Association).

Note: If you search for Vibrio Vulnificus Infection on google images, then the results can be too unpleasant for you to view.

How does Fat affect the body

Most of us consider Fat as a culprit responsible for most of the diseases. But what we miss while making this misconception is that we can't live without fat. A healthy man must have body fat equivalent to 15% of body weight. What does it prove ? Is fat a healthy thing ? The answer is Balance. Anything out of proportion in our body can cause disease. So Balance is the key. Fat is a good thing till it remains in the correct proportion. But when it is stored in excess in our body then it becomes a disease itself.
Note: American Medical Association declared Obesity as a disease in 2013. Obesity fits the classification of a disease as it reduces the life expectancy and disturbs the normal functioning of the body.
Do you know a healthy women should have 27% body fat while men should have just 15%. If you want to know why then Read More.

How does fat affect the body

Fat affects our body in both positive and negative ways. Positive things about fat is that it is necessary for proper metabolism of body. Fatty acids are necessary for absorption of some vitamins from our diet. Fat acts as an insulation and shock absorbing element. Protein in our diet can't be utilized in absence of fat. If you want to know more about goodness of fat then read more.
When it comes to negative effects of fat then blood pressure and diabetes are the very first thing that comes in our mind. Excess fat in our body can easily make us sick by increasing the cholesterol. Most of us don't know that fat has the ability to secrete hormones which can interfere with our regular hormones and make us sick due to hormonal imbalance.

Our body has got two types of fat: visceral fat and subcutaneous fat. Subcutaneous fat is located just under the skin while Visceral fat surrounds our internal organs and it is much harmful then the previous one. To know more about these fats and their affect on body, read visceral fat vs subcutaneous fat.

Inactivity and improper diet is the key to excess fat in the body. Apart from the normal fat in diet, transfat is the main culprit. Most of the fast foods contain transfat to increase their shelf life,but it decreases the life span of humans due to it disease causing ability. Transfats are formed by converting unsaturated fat into saturated fat through a process called hydrogenation. To know more about hydrogenation and transfat read more. Transfat increases the bad cholesterol level in body ad some experts believe than transfat can also cause cancer.

The best way to measure your body fat or obesity level in the BMI chart which is calculated using your height and weight. Your BMIU can easily tell your either you are Obese or not. Calculate your BMI using our BMI calculator.

Fat is good unless it is making you obese. So have a healthy diet plan with good lifestyle and stay away from diseases caused by fat.