Showing posts with label Rare Diseases. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Rare Diseases. Show all posts

Living with Blood Thinners

Blood thinners are medication usually recommended to people with diseases like DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis known for blood clot in leg), PE (Pulmonary Embolism known for blood clot in lung),  Atrial fibrillation and some heart diseases. Apart from medication that is prescribed by doctors, our life style also plays an important role in regulating the stats of blood. Those who take blood thinners get their blood tested at regular intervals. Blood INR (international normalized ratio) value is often measured to estimate the blood thickness.
Note: If you have ever had DVT then you can't donate blood.

Both over thickness of blood and over thinner blood is dangerous for human body. Thicker blood increases the chances of formation of blood clots, while over thin blood increases the risk of bleeding (both internal and external). Blood INR value of a healthy human being remains under 1.1, while those who depend on blood thinners should keep it between 2 to 3. Blood INR value of above 4.5 is considered too thin and increases your chances of bleeding.

What makes blood thicker ?

  • Health of your liver and digestive system: Our liver is a major organ when it comes to digestion of food and extraction of vitamins and minerals from our diet. Proper balance of nutrients in our body is necessary to maintain the correct thickness of blood. More amount of heavy proteins in our blood can make our blood thicker. Deficiency of protein S or C can also make it thicker.
  • Heredity: Sometimes inherited genetic disorders result in thicker blood. For example, protein-S deficiency may occur due to inherited genetic disorder from any one of the parents, which makes our blood thicker and cause DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis).
  • Too much RBC, WBC and Platelets: Too much blood in circulation can cause blood thickness. Similarly more amount of red blood cells (RBCs)(often caused by polycythemia vera), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets in blood makes it thicker.
  • Other Diseases:  Some types of cancer and lupus can also make blood thicker.
  • Mutations: mutations in factor V or prothrombin 20210 mutation can cause blood thickness.

Apart from medication there are several other factors that can control your blood thickness. If you are on blood thinners then you should take extra precaution about these factors.

Diet influence Blood Thickness

  • Vitamin K : High amount of Vitamin K in our diet or supplements can make our blood thicker and lessen the effect of blood thinners. Similarly lack of Vitamin K in diet can boost the effect of blood thinners. So proper balance of Vitamin K in your diet is necessary. Vitamin K is found in broccoli, chickpeas, green tea, kale, turnip greens, soybeans and liver.
  • Natural Blood thinners: Some food items act as natural anticoagulants thus increase the effect of blood thinners. Some of these food items are garlic, ginger, celery seed and aniseed.
  • Vitamin E: It is a natural blood thinner. Oils of olive, soybean, corn and wheat germ are rich souurce of Vitamin E, hence should be consumed with caution. Other rich source of vitamin E are tomatoes, mangoes, spinach, almond, broccoli and sunflower seed.


  • Alcohol Intake: Usually people think that moderate amount of alcohol is good for heart as it saves from heart disease, which is achieved by blood-thinning effect of alcohol. But what most people don't know is that alcohol can interact with blood thinning medication and cause dangerous results, even if you are being moderate.
  • Smoking : Smoking makes our blood thicker by damaging the tissues.
  • Drinking water: Drinking adequate amount of water is also necessary to maintain correct thickness of blood. Don't think that drinking some extra water will make your blood thinner as your kidney will instantly send it to your urinary bladder. So just keep hydrated throughout the day.

Other Medications

  • Estrogen-containing medications, such as birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy can make your blood thick.
  • Some antibiotics and anti-fungal drugs increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Some pain relievers and acid-reducer make your blood thinner.

Type of Blood Thinners

From over 5 decades people are using warfarin as blood thinner. A newer type of medication for the same purpose is direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). DOACs users don't need to think much about food restrictions and regular blood tests, but their cost is upto 20 times higher and only a person with health kidney function can consume them. So if you want to use DOACs then consult a specialist regarding this matter. Still a number of people prefer warfarin due to lesser cost and lesser risk factor. Missing a warfarin dose does not posses any threat as it acts for longer duration, while missing a DOACs dose increases your stroke risk.

If you are living with blood thinners then you must make some changes in your diet, lifestyle and other medication after consulting a specialist. Don't be your own doctor and get your blood regularly checked and get your reports examined.

Do You Find it Difficult to Recognize Someone ! Face Blindness

Just like color blindness, where one can't distinguish colors correctly, face blindness is a condition where one can't distinguish between faces. It is a type of autism known as Prosopagnosia or facial agnosia. There is no defect in the eyes of people suffering from this disease as they can see objects perfectly, but just can't recognize faces. To understand this fact, just ask yourself if you can distinguish between faces of two monkeys of similar stature. Most probably the answer will be no, as your brain is not designed to distinguish their faces. Similarly some people can't distinguish between human faces as some part of their brain don't process that information.

How do our brain recognize faces ?

Our brain analyses and stores the information about different facial features, such as nose, eyes, color of eyes, cheeks, skin color, hair style, color of hair and then store all of that information as set to recognize a face. Even voice of a person is stored with its face in our brain to recognize him / her. Even if some features don't match next time due to makeup, haircut or hair color then our brain use remaining features to match the face with stored faces in its database. We even use this feature to recognize blood relatives of a person. For example sometimes you can easily distinguish if a kid is son/daughter of a particular person just by looking at his/her facial features.
Some people come to know that they are suffering from Face Blindness only when they read about it in any science journal. Suddenly they realize that they can't recognize faces of characters in a movie or faces of their co-workers.
Do people suffering from Face Blindness, use voice to recognize people ?
However you may find it possible, but people suffering from Prosopagnosia (Face Blindness) find it difficult to recognize voices. Inability to recognize voices is called phonagnosia, where one person can't distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar voices. It is because the portion of our brain which recognizes our faces is also responsible for voice recognition.
According to a study one in every 50 is suffering from Prosopagnosia. The severity of condition may vary. Most of them remain unaware that it is a medical condition and feel that their memory is getting weak.
How does Prosopagnosia occur in some people ?
The problem of face blindness either occurs in the childhood or occur as a result of brain injury or trauma. Sometime an unrelated brain surgery can also also result in prosopagnosia. Researches are still going on to find if face blindness is due to lack of some connections or due to inability to use connections that are available. Fusiform gyrus is a part of brain held responsible for face blindness. Clotting of blood in this area of brain during a stroke can also result in face blindness.
People suffering from Face Blindness often live in fear that some important person in their life might feel unimportant, if he/she don't get recognized by him/her. Several other social consequences can occur as result of non-recognition or mis-recognition.
How do people suffering from Prosopagnosia distinguish people ?
People suffering from Prosopagnosia use alternative ways to recognize people. The take help of hair style, walking style, body language, height and clothes to identify a person.
Worst part of Prosopagnosia is when you mistake yourself as someone else in mirror, and then realize after sometime that its really you.
When it comes to treatment, sometimes it may get resolved on its own but sometimes don't. If it doesn't then you may need to find some alternative ways to recognize a person.
Note: Prosopagnosia in kids often results in shy behavior as they find themselves unable to recognize people.

Parasites that can live in Human Body

Recently a Russian women reported shifting bumps on her face which was diagnosed as a parasitic worm. Doctors removed that parasite but it made people aware of several parasites that can survive in human body. The motive of this article is to make you aware of such parasitic creatures that can use your body as a host.

  • Naegleria Fowleri :  This bug has infected 35 people in US during past 10 years. Its infection is fatal as it infects the brain and thus named “brain-eating amoeba”. This bug is found in warm lakes and rivers and infects the swimmers through nose. It causes stiff neck, seizures, and hallucinations before the person dies due to infection.
  • Lice: They commonly stick themselves on hair and then suck blood from skin to survive. Over the counter medication can help you to get rid of them.
  • Acanthamoeba : This bug is common among contact lens wearers if they don't wash their lenses regularly in tap water. This parasite is found in lakes, oceans, soil and air, which makes is easily available if you don't take proper precautions. It cases sensitivity to light, redness in eye and feeling of something inside your eye. If it remains untreated then it can cause vision loss.
  • Whipworm or Trichuris Trichiura: Children are most prone to these parasites as they tend to crawl and put their fingers in mouth afterwards. It causes diarrhea, anemia and weight loss. Whipworm can grow up to two inches in length.
  • Gnathostoma Spinigerum: This parasite is common in cat, but enters humans through undercooked fresh-water fish. Its larvae infects your stomach and lever in the beginning and then reaches your skin. If it infects your nervous system then it can be fatal.
  • Loa Loa : This parasite can infect you through deer-fly bites if you have spent some time in African rain forests. It causes itching sensation around joints and can also infect the surface of eye, where it is easily visible.
  • Ticks : These pests can dig itself into your skin and cause lyme disease and create a bulls-eye rash on skin.
  • Chigoe Fleas : This parasite is found in sandy or tropical areas and it digs itself into the feet and can grow up to 2000 times bigger once inside. It cause itchy sensation, ulcers, gangrene or tetanus.
  • Scabies : These scary mites can dig tunnels under skin and then lay eggs there. They survive in the skin folds between fingers, arms, legs and other body parts. Close skin contact between people can transfer them.
  • Guinea worms: These worms are ingested as larvae through drinking water and then enters into body tissues through intestine. Within a year blisters start forming in legs and worm emerges out of it to lay eggs. 
  • Sparganum: It is a tapeworm and can live up to 20 years without showing any symptoms. Usually it survives inside intestine and can grow one feet long. It can be fatal if it reaches brain. These worms are ingested alive with under cooked or raw pork.
  • Liver Fluke: It also spreads through contaminated drinking water. As they reach intestine they latch onto the bile ducts of the liver and cause liver infections, severe stomach aches and jaundice. They can survive for 20 to 30 years inside human body and may cause bile duct cancer.
  • Filarial Worms: These microscopic parasites are carried through mosquito and infects lymph system and causes a disease named lymphatic filariasis. Most of the infected people don't show any symptom but it can cause fever, swollen lymph nodes and a buildup of fluid in the body.
  • Screwworm: It is actually larvae of a fly which lays its eggs on cuts or wounds and then larvae survives can causes infection.
  • Chiggers: They don't enter your body, but connects themselves to outer skin and feed themselves for at least 3 days before letting themselves away. Waistbands or sock cuffs are their favorite part to stick and they itch a lot.
  • Dirofilaria repens : It is the parasitic worm that infected a Russian women recently. It is found in cats and dogs and goes into mosquitos to lay its eggs. Then as the mosquito bites other mammals, the larvae is transferred. This parasite can cause blindness if not treated on time.
  • Hookworm: This worm can survive in human intestine for years and suck blood, cause inflammation and anemia. 
  • Botfly (Dermatobia hominis) : It infects humans in form of a larvae which tries to get into human body with through its barbed skin. It is found in South America and Africa.

These are a few parasites that can live inside human body and cause infection. The best way to keep yourself away from them is proper hygiene and taking good care of your body when you visit an area that is prone to such parasites.

Christmas Disease - A rare genetic disorder in Males Only

This name sounds a little different. How can somebody name a disease like that. But it is a real name of a genetic disorder and that name is given due to name of its first reported patient named Stephen Christmas in 1952. Christmas Disease is also know as hemophilia B or factor IX hemophilia. This disease usually affects males only. Females can be a carrier of these genes but very rarely get affected by it. What happens in this genetic disorder will come next in this article.

What is Christmas Disease ?

Christmas Disease is a genetic disorder, which happens in the chromosome X. Men have one X and one Y chromosome, and when this one X chromosome gets this disease by heredity, the subject looses the factor IX, which is the ability to clot the blood. It means that bleeding from a wound will not result in clotting and blood will continue flowing out of body. Patients of christmas disease need to pay special attention to wounds and need to adopt a very safe lifestyle to save themselves. Even a small wound can cause serious complication for them. In absence of proper treatment Christmas Disease can be fatal.

Why only men are generally affected by Christmas Disease ?

Only X chromosome have the factor IX. Men have one X chromosome, while women have 2. Even if a woman looses the factor IX on one X chromosome, she can use factor IX on other X chromosome. It makes that woman carrier of Christmas disease but she wont get affected by the negative impacts of that disease. In a very rare circumstance a girl child can get Christmas Disease. There are only 25% chances of that only if the father have this disease and mother is a carrier. Such condition occurs very rarely and no such cases are generally reported.

What are the symptoms of Christmas Disease ?

  • Continuous bleeding from wounds (inability to form clots by itself)
  • Bleeding from nose
  • unexplained blood in urine / stools
  • pooling of blood in joints

Special Care for patients of Christmas Disease

  • Factor IX Injections: These injections are prepared from donated blood of healthy people.
  • Desmopressin Acetate: This medicine can be applied on small wounds to stop bleeding. However medical treatment should not be avoided in case of a larger wound.
  • Prophylaxis: It is a medical term used for preventive blood transfusion, which is done to avoid or reduce prolonged and heavy bleeding.
  • Avoid getting hurt: It is the most necessary precaution for a patient of christmas disease.

Note: Internal bleeding create major complications in Christmas Disease. In case internal bleeding in brain, the condition can be very critical.

What happens during COMA !

Coma is a medical condition in which a person can't respond to any external stimuli. A person is considered in coma only if he/she remains unconscious for more than 6 hours. It can occur due to some head injury or internal bleeding in brain. When a person is in Coma, it appears as if he/she is in deep sleep, but can't get up even if you shake him/her up. In medical terms coma is persistent vegetative state or a state of deep unconsciousness. What happens to a person during Coma differs from person as it depends on the level of coma. Level of coma can be measured using Glasgow Coma Scale.

Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)

It is a scale used by medical practitioners around the world to measure the intensity of Coma. Its readings differ from 3 to 15. A patient with level 3 Coma is most severe and chances of recovery are usually very rare, while a person at level 15 is considered fully awake and conscious. There are three criteria on which the condition of a patient is measured. These criteria are eye movement, verbal ability and motor function (ability to move the body). Eye movement is rated on scale of 1 to 4, verbal ability is rated on scale of 1 to 5, and motor function is rated on scale of 1 to 6. Thus sum of all these criteria gives the final result. So the minimum result is 3 while the maximum result is 15. Usually the medical practitioners write intensity of coma in following way : GCS7 = E3 V2 M2 . Such description of  Glasgow Coma Scale gives whole information above patients consciousness level.

What causes coma ?

Coma can occur due to following reason.

  • Head injury: It might be due to some accident and impact on head. Internal bleeding in brain can also cause coma. Sometimes due to sudden impact during an accident, brain moves inside the skull and causes coma.
  • Stroke: Stroke can stop the blood supply to some important parts of brain which may lead the patient into coma.
  • Blood loss: Blood loss due to an injury can cause coma as brain stops functioning due to lack of blood. If this condition remains same for longer duration then some parts of brain may get damaged permanently and severity of coma may increase.
  • Swelling in Brain: Swelling in brain can cause come. Swelling may occur due to lack of oxygen or electrolyte imbalance.
  • Blood Sugar: Both  hyperglycemia (very high blood sugar) and hypoglycemia (very low blood sugar) can cause coma. But this condition is reversible in most cases by correction of blood sugar level.
  • After Surgeries: It is found that some patients enter the state of coma after some surgeries. It is not necessary to be a brain surgery. However such cases are very rare.
  • Drowning or Choking: These conditions stops the oxygen supply to brain for longer duration and sometimes found responsible for coma.
  • Repeated seizures: Single seizure can't put a person into coma but repeated seizures can.

What happens during COMA

Different people have different experiences during coma.

  • Pupils of a person in coma are usually dilated. It means pupils don't expand or contract due to light.
  • In most of the cases the patient don't remember anything that happened during coma, as if he/she was in a deep sleep.
  • Some patients report that they were able to hear all voices around them but can't react as they are not able to move their body, not even eyes. Such condition is very bad as person is trapped in his own body.
  • In some cases the patient is able to control eyes and eyelids but not other parts of body. Such patients sleep and wake up like other patients but can't move any other part except their eyes.
  • Some patients face memory loss after recovery from coma as some vital part of brain responsible for memory was damaged. Once a patient who recovered from coma was not able to recognize his wife, to whom he was married for 20 years.
  • Once a patient came out of coma after 8 years and spent a day catching up with family and fell back into coma the very next day and never recovered.
  • Mel Blanc, a loony toons voice actor fell into coma and didn't respond until a neurosurgeon addressed him as "Bugs Bunny", to which he responded "Myeeeh...Whats up doc".
  • Hours before Thomas Edison died, he recovered from coma and looked upwards and said "It is very beautiful over there". I am struggling to find whether has was talking about ceiling or heaven.

Experts on the subject of coma have different views about it. But the best explained is that our brain is a large bunch of neurons, all of which are never used and only some part or some circuit is used. If some import part of brain is damaged then we fell into coma and in the mean time our brain tries to make some alternate circuit by using the remaining neurons. Damaged neurons can't be regenerated by our body but circuits can be reconstructed with the remaining neurons. If it succeeds then the patient recovers from coma gradually.

How long do a person remains in coma ?
There is no time limit as it depends on cause of coma and severity of come. On an average it takes 2 to 4 weeks to recover from a coma but as the duration increases the chances or revival gets less. Some patients recover from coma in a few days while some can spend their complete remaining life in that state. Terry Wallis woke up from a coma after 19 years, which is the longest duration for a patient waking up from coma. However Elaine Esposito was in coma for 37 years and 111 days but she never recovered and died in coma.
The longer the person takes, the chances of some body disability increases. Due to this reason some therapies are recommended to recovered patients to recover from disability.

When it comes to brain then nothing is impossible. We humans still have a lot to learn about functioning of brain. May be some day in future we will be able to scan the brain circuits and make a person recover at a faster rate.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection Symptoms and Treatment

Vibrio Vulnificus is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, isolated as a disease causing agent in 1976. It a rod-shaped bacteria mostly found in marine environment. Vibrio Vulnificus is related to Vibrio Cholera, which is the bacteria that causes Cholera.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection mostly occurs in marine environment or by eating sea food, especially shellfish or oysters. This infection can occur through contaminated food or through some open wound exposed to contaminated water. If this infection spreads into blood stream then it can be a life threatening condition. People with weak immune system or chronic liver disease are more prone to Vibrio Vulnificus Infection. This infection have a mortality rate around 25% . On an average 90 cases of this infection are reported to CDC every year.

Types of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection

  • Acute gastroenteritis: This infection occurs after eating seafood especially uncooked shellfish or oysters. Infected food can't be distinguished by its appearance, taste and odor. 
  • Necrotizing wound infections: Vibrio Vulnificus can enter the body of a human being through an open wound. If injured skin is exposed to contaminated water the this bacteria can enter into body through it. Puncture wounds due to spines of fished such as tilapia, catfish or stingrays can cause such type of infection.  
  • Invasive septicemia: If Vibrio Vulnificus enters the blood stream of a person with weak immune system then it is Invasive septicemia. This type of infection is most severe one and mortality rate is upto 50%. It can also occur in people with chronic liver disease. Most of the people with this type of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection die within 48 hours after infection.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection Symptoms

Symptoms of  Vibrio Vulnificus Infection are different for different types of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection.

  • Vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain are symptoms of Acute gastroenteritis.
  • Blistering skin lesions are found in people suffering from Necrotizing wound infections or Invasive septicemia.
  • Septic shock (decreased blood pressure) can occur in Invasive septicemia which can lead to death sometimes.

Vibrio Vulnificus Infection Treatment

  • First successful documented treatment of Vibrio Vulnificus Infection was done in 1995. That treatment was done with Fortaz and intravenous (IV) Cipro and IV doxycycline.
  • Quinolone or intravenous doxycycline with ceftazidime are recommended by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and AMA (American Medical Association).

Note: If you search for Vibrio Vulnificus Infection on google images, then the results can be too unpleasant for you to view.

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): The Fatal Hole in Heart

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) is a congenital heart defect, usually present from birth. In VSD there is a hole in septum (the wall between right and left side of heart) between the right and left ventricle. Ventricles are lower part of heart which pumps the blood out of it. Right ventricle pumps the blood to lungs while left ventricle pumps the blood to remaining body. The hole between these ventricles mixes the oxygen-rich blood with oxygen-less blood and exerts extra workload on lungs, heart and pulmonary artery.

What causes Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) ?
VSD is usually detected in infants soon after birth. In most of the cases it fills on its own within a few weeks, but if it doesn't then it is considered as a health risk. The cause of VSD still not known. It is a rare disease and some experts believe that genetic factors might have some role in it. Similar to VSD there is another medical condition called Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO), also known as Atrial septal defect (ASD). PFO is also a hole in heart which is present in almost 20% population but it causes no visible symptoms and often remains untreated. However the reason behind PFO is known which is described in our last article.

Symptoms of Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
As we told that VCD is usually detected in newly born kids, so the symptoms need to be checked either by parents or doctor as the the kid can't tell these things on its own. Some common symptoms are

  • Poor feeding
  • Fast breathing
  • Getting tired more often
  • Poor Weight Gain
  • Bluish tint to the skin, lips and fingernails

Health Complications caused due to VSD
If the hole due to VSD is small then it does not cause any health complications and doctors suggest to wait for sometime to let it close itself, but they recommend regular checkup of kid to monitor the VSD hole if it is shrinking or not.
Health complications arise if the VSD is large or if there are multiple small VSD. VSD increases the pressure of blood in Right Auricle which supplies blood to lungs through Pulmonary Artery. Usually oxygen less blood travels to lungs, but the VSD hole mixes some oxygen-rich blood into it as well. All factors not only make our lungs and heart work more intensely to provide proper blood supply to body but also increases blood pressure in pulmonary artery which is known as Pulmonary Hypertension. Usually Pulmonary Hypertension us not considered as curable disease but if it is due to VSD then treatment of VSD can treat it as well.
If VSD remains untreated that it can be fatal.

Treatment of Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
Previously Open Heart Surgery was the only option to treat VSD. But a newly born kid with a major VSD can't go for that, so surgeons go for a small surgery procedure known as pulmonary artery banding, which narrows the pulmonary artery and reduces the blood flow to lungs. As the child gets older an open-heart-surgery is performed to remove the band and fix the VSD.
If the VSD is small the it can be sewed, but if it is large then a patch of fabric or lining around the heart is used and sewed on the hole. Later hearts's own tissues grow on that part and make it permanent.
Now a days a modern technology called catheterization laboratory is performed to stay away from open heart surgery. In this technique a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in thigh that leads to heart with the help of an x-ray machine. Then the VSD is detected and a mesh device is sent to the site through catheter which closes the hole from both sides. This complete procedure just needs a maximum one night stay for the patient.

Vitamin A in Excess can be fatal !

Vitamin A is an important nutrient for our eyes and normal body growth of children. But excess amount of Vitamin A can be fatal as well. However it occurs very rare and only due to our own ignorance. It can negatively affect our liver, kidney, brain, bones, eyes and skin. This lists of organs is sufficient to make you understand the importance of correct amount of Vitamin A in body. have collected some facts to tell you about the toxic effect of excess vitamin A in our body and how it can be fatal.

What do our body do with excess Vitamin A
Our body can't get rid of excess vitamin A itself as it is a fat soluble vitamin, not a water soluble vitamin. Excess amount of water soluble vitamins can be flushed out of our body through urine, but it can't be done with fat soluble vitamins. So the excess amount of vitamin A is stored indefinitely in liver and other fat deposits inside our body. The excess amount of vitamin A in our body can be diagnosed by blood test.

How much Vitamin A should be consumed in a day
700mg of Vitamin A per day is sufficient for an average woman and 900mg for a man. However a pregnant woman or a breastfeeding mother need slightly more amount. If you are having a balanced diet then you don't need to worry about it. But if you are suffering from some disease and getting some vitamin supplements then you should stick to the prescription by the doctor. Don't try prescribe vitamin supplements for yourself, as its the most common reason for Hypervitaminosis.


Hypervitaminosis-A is the medical term used to name the disease of excess amount of vitamin A in our body. There are two types of this condition, one is acute and second in chronic. Acute Hypervitaminosis-A occurs if very large amount of vitamin A is consumed in a short span of time, while Chronic Hypervitaminosis-A occurs when more amount of vitamin A is consumed on daily basis and very high amount of it is stored by our body after a few weeks or months. Both of these conditions have different symptoms and treated accordingly.

Causes of Hypervitaminosis-A

  • High-dose dietary supplements
  • Megavitamin Therapy which involves consuming very large doses of certain vitamins to prevent or treat some diseases.
  • Some acne treatment drugs also contain high dose of Vitamin A
  • Accidental ingestion by a children

Symptoms of Acute Hypervitaminosis-A

  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Drowsiness
  • Feeling of pressure on your head
  • Irritability
  • Nausea

Symptoms of Chronic Hypervitaminosis-A

  • blurry vision
  • bone pain
  • swelling of the bones
  • poor appetite
  • respiratory infection
  • dizziness
  • sensitivity to sunlight
  • dry, rough skin
  • jaundice
  • itchy or peeling skin
  • cracked fingernails
  • corners of your mouth getting cracks in skin
  • hair loss
  • confusion

Can Hypervitaminosis-A be fatal ?
Hypervitaminosis-A can cause liver damage, osteoporosis (weakness of bones). Kidney failure may also occur due to excess calcium buildup. All these condition are fatal. In children it can easily cause coma due to swelling in brain. If the condition is not diagnosed and treated on time then it can be either fatal or create a life threatening condition.

Treatment of Hypervitaminosis-A 
Treatment of Hypervitaminosis-A is done by completely stopping the vitamin supplements and stop taking Vitamin A rich food items. It takes time to recover and in the mean time other symptoms are treated individually. Recovery time depends on severity of your condition and how soon it is diagnosed.

Can a healthy man die while Sleeping ?

Have you ever heard of a news where a healthy man in his 30s dies while sleeping. Such incidents have attracted the medical community to look into such reports. While some people say that most of such cases have some already existing medical disorder related to heart or breathing pattern, but some medical examinations showed that no such thing occurred. It made some people believe that it might have happened due to some nightmare. researched on this topic and found some interesting information that will be shared with you in this article.

Is there any scientific name given to such sleeping death ?
Yes, such deaths have occurred in different parts of world and different medical terms are given to these least understood death. Some of the names are:
Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS)
Sudden Adult Death Syndrome
Sudden Unexpected/Unexplained Death Syndrome (SUDS)
Sudden Unexpected/Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS)

Does this syndrome occur only in a particular ethnic group ?
This syndrome can't be attributed to a particular ethinicity, mostly it occurs with people connected to southeast Asia. Medical practitioners believe that it occurs only in those populations which are culturally and genetically distinct and they have to leave their origin and get settled as refugees in other parts of world. Filipinos and Chinese immigrants in the Philippines, Japanese in Japan, and natives of Guam in the United States and Guam and Southeast Asian immigrants, who were mostly fleeing the Vietnam War were the most affected people by this mysterious syndrome.

Whats the medical reasons behind such Deaths ?
Researchers tried to figure out the reason but even after intensive research no particular reason was found. Some researchers believe that its related to body's failure to accurately coordinate electrical signals to heart which makes heart to stop beating. Most of the people who died were just near the age of 33 and seemingly healthy. So it made it hard to believe that how can such failure occur in a healthy person.

Is it connected to Acute Pancreatitis 
Acute Pancreatitis is medical term, where the victim ingests a lot of food (rich in carbohydrate of fat) with large amount of alcoholic beverages before going to sleep. But no research on the victims of SUDS proved this fact. Researched done by some American medical research teams didn't connect Acute Pancreatitis with SUDS.

Superstition connected to such deaths

  • Bangungot: In Philippines they believe in mythological creature called batibat or bangungot. It is a hag like mythological creature which sits on victims face or chest and suffocate him to death. Victim may feel paralysis at that moment. The only way to save yourself from that condition is to bite your own tongue or wiggling your toes to get out of paralysis and suffocation.
  • Evil Spirit: Filipinos believe that its a bad spirit of a jealous women who sits on chest of a men and suffocates him to death. Due to this reason some Filipinos men dress as women before going to sleep to avoid the attention of that spirit.
  • Lack of Worship: Hmong people believe that if they don't worship properly and don't offer sacrifice to their ancestors spirits who use to protect them, then evil spirits reach them through nightmare and kill by sleep paralysis and pressure on chest.

One thing common in these superstitions are paralysis and pressure on chest. Mostly men are killed by this syndrome. These factors might make some of you believe in these superstitions but we don't approve you to do so. Medical science has given answers to a number of mysteries and we hope that it will be solved soon.

Water Poisoning : Don't drink it too much

Water Poisoning, also known as Water Intoxication or hyperhydration, is a medical condition that often occur due to over-drinking of water. Usually people take water as a toxin remover of the body. Water hydrates our body and blood and our kidney filters the toxins in blood and cleanse them out through urine with the help of water. But somehow if we get the overdose of water the over-hydration can harm us. will put some light on this topic. You must read it if you know anyone who drinks water like a maniac just to lose weight or to cleanse his/her body.

What is Water Poisoning / Water Intoxication ?
Our body have certain salts in our blood stream to do various communication activities within body. Our brain need them most to communicative with different organs and and make our nervous system properly. A certain level of concentration of these salts in necessary. But when we drink too much water, the concentration decreases. However in such case our kidneys try to flush out extra water but some salts also flush out with it, and still if we keep drinking the water then we reach a level where salt concentration comes at a level where we call it Water Poisoning or Water Intoxication.

Symptoms of Water Poisoning

Symptoms of Water Poisoning starts to occur when Blood Sodium level falls below 130 mmol/L . Some of the early symptoms of Water Poisoning are:

  • Headache
  • Restlessness, irritability
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Lightheadedness, dizziness
  • Fatigue, muscle weakness, unstable gait
If the condition remain undetected for more than 48 hours and sodium level falls below 105mmol/L then it becomes a life threatning condition. Its symptoms include:
  • Swelling of Hands and feet
  • Muscle Cramps
  • Blurred Vision
  • Less Urination
  • Coughing up blood
  • Siezures
  • Hallucination
  • Coma
These symptoms can cause death within a day or two.

Treatment of Water Poisoning
Mild symptoms of Water Poisoning can be treated by restricting intake of Water. But is severe cases special treatment is necessary. It may include diuretics to increase urination and vasopressin receptor antagonist (VRA).

How much water can cause Water Poisoning ?
Drinking around 2 liters of water per hour for a few hours can cause Water Poisoning.

Can Water Poisoning cause death ?
Yes, if symptoms are not diagnosed and proper treatment is not given then it can easily cause death.

Which activities can cause Water Poisoning ?
All those activities which include drinking lots of water with no or little sodium intake can cause Water Poisoning. People with low body weight are more prone to it. Here are a few activities that can cause Water Poisoning.

  • Water Drinking Contests: Several people have died as a result of such contests. Some of them drank just 7.5 ltr of water in a few hours.
  • Water Diet: Some fool people go on water diet to lose weight, but it can easily cause water poisoning and they take the symptoms as a result of low calorie diet.
  • Long term Physical Activities which needs drinking water: Some marathon runners face this problem as they drink lots of water, which don't have sufficient sodium in it. Most of the commercial drinks don't have enough sodium, they have just added sugar.
  • Mental Disorders: Some mental disorders can also make a person drink upto 15 liters of water in a day. 

Apart from the above some inhuman activities can also cause Water Poisoning.

  • Child Abuse with Water: In 2002 a 3 year old girl died as her baby sitter forced her to drink 2.8 ltr of water within a few hours.
  • Drinking water to hide Drug Abuse: Some people try to hide drug abuse by drinking lots of water the day before testing in order to flush out the drug. Sometimes it cause water poisoning. 
  • Drinking beer: Beer have very low sodium content. In 2012 a man drank 10 ltr of beer and got affected by water poisoning.
  • Suicide Attempt: Some people use this trick to attempt suicide. 

Are there any long term side effects after treatment of Water Poisoning ?
Yes, there are a number of side effects. It depends on the severity of water poisoning from which you recovered and how much harm it has already done to your body and brain. Here are few side effects of Water Poisoning that are basically caused due to permanent brain damage.

  • Mental retardation
  • Diabetes insipidus
  • Persistent vegetative state: A state of being unresponsive to psychological and physical stimuli.
  • Hearing loss
  • Cerebral palsy: A state of uncontrolled muscle movement.
  • Gait abnormality: Its an abnormality in Walking.

What is the maximum limit of drinking water ?
One should never drink more than 1.4 ltr of water in an hour. An adult on average diet should not exceed drinking 11 ltr of water in a day. If you are on fasting (or low sodium diet) then don't go above 5 ltr of water in a day.

As we say in most of our articles that a proper balance in necessary to live a healthy and long life. Same thing applies on water. Drinking too less and too much, both can make you sick. So drink plenty of water, but not too much and balance it with your diet as well.
Note: Water Drinking competition often cause Water Poisoning. So don't fall prey to such contests just to earn few extra bucks. It may cost your life.

Auto Brewery Syndrome : Drunk without Drinking

You won't believe this fact that a person can show symptoms of of drunk man, even without drinking. Even all of his alcohol tests will come positive. Such situation is common if one is suffering from Auto Brewery Syndrome. However this medical condition is very rare. Some people who know this medical condition try to use it as a defense against drunk-driving charges. Here we will explain more about this "Drunk without drinking" Auto Brewery Syndrome.

Auto Brewery Syndrome

Auto Brewery Syndrome is a medical condition in which fermentation of carbohydrates occur in our digestive system and creates alcohol. A person suffering from this condition can easily feel drunk after few hours of carbohydrate rich diet. Auto Brewery Syndrome is also known as Gut fermentation syndrome. There is not much documentation available about this disease.

In 2013 Journal of Scientific Research published a report about  61 year old man who had this syndrome from past 20 years. His blood alcohol level was found 0.40 without drinking. According to him this condition started after he had irritable bowel syndrome that worsened to bloating and gas. Later muscular pain, headache and mood disturbances became a part of his life.
In some extreme cases Auto-brewery syndrome can cause alcohol or methanol poisoning which may lead to death.

Social effects of Auto Brewery Syndrome

  • It reduces the working capicity of person and affects his job and personal life.
  • It can demotivate a person to a great extent.
  • The friend circle of the person is reduced is very much and most of the people feel that he/she is drunk. Such person feel alone and detached from family and friends.

Cause of Auto Brewery Syndrome

This condition occurs as a result of too much yeast trapped in digestive system. That yeast can ferment any carbohydrate into ethanol.

Treatment of Auto Brewery Syndrome

  • According to specialists this condition can be treated with help of some anti-fungal medications, such as fluconazole. Yeast is a fungus and its the root of this disease. Once the yeast is destroyed by antifungal medication, the fermentation will stop.
  • Another temporary way to get rid of intoxication is to avoid eating carbohydrates, sugar and yeast. But its nearly impossible to live without eating any carbohydrate. So if you feel drunk without drinking then you may check yourself by removing carbohydrate from your diet and then check if the drunk-symptoms are reduced. If it is so then visit a doctor and tell about it.

So if you ever meet a drunk man, and he says that he was not drinking then now you have at least one reason to believe him.
Don't ever try to use it as a defense against drunk-driving charges, as it a very rare medical condition and mostly found only in Japan. 

A life without Pain : Blessing or Curse

You will wonder if i tell you that there is a person who don't feel pain. It seems to be a blessing to live a life without pain. Most of the people face some kind of pain in some phase of life. Pain is one of the most troubling element in some people's life. Either its Sciatica, Spondylitis, tooth pain, fracture pain or an injury. We face pain in all segments of life and want to get rid of it. But if you think that it will be a blessing to live without pain then you are wrong. Instead its a curse. Pain is a sensation which have its own importance. You will know it once you read this complete article.

Gabby Gingras, born 2001, is a girl who can't feel pain. When she was in 5th Month and teething she bite her father's finger so much that he pulled his finger out and a tooth came out, Gabby bled but didn't cry. Only then her parents noticed that she don't feel pain. Afterwards she started to bite her fingers. After visiting several doctors and searching internet for this disease her parents found that its HSAN(Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy), a disease in which the nerve fibers that feel pain and temperature are not present in body. Her parents got her baby teeth removed and she broke most of the adult teeth herself. As the time flew by Gabby chew her tongue, lost one eye, broken her jaw and hurt herself in several ways. She is still surviving with various safety measures. She has artificial left eye, wears a protective contact lens on right eye and wears swimming goggles while sleeping. A documentary film "A life without Pain" was also made on her life.

Joann Cruz and another 30 years elder case of HSAN. She was born in 1971 and survived with this disease. She had 6 major spinal surgeries as she had broken her spine several times. A rod was inserted in her spine to hold it all together. But she broke the rod as well and noticed it only when she heard it scratching crack-crack sound but felt no pain. Her baby teeth were also pulled out.

Its really hard to believe this fact there is such disease and much harder to live with it. We can't even imagine the problems that such patients and their parents face. For example its hard for such patients to decide if the food and drinks are at right temperature to drink. They can easily burn their or mouth with hot food or water.

Only that person can understand the importance of pain who can't feel it. Pain is a sensation which saves us from harmful events and make us treat them as soon as possible. If we don't feel pain we can't know that any thing wrong is happening to our body. Pain is an indication to look towards our body. The more severe the pain, the more critical matter it is.

The disease that won't let you AGE

Most of us don't know that there is a disease that can act as an effective anti-aging pill. Everyone desires not to get old and keep yourself young for all of your life. Everyone wants to avoid diseases that comes with old age. We want to keep our best body for all of our life. Stopping aging is the very first desire of every human being. We can't think that its a disease if we stop aging. But its a disease if a natural process stops without doing anything to stop it. It becomes a disease when it happens without your desire to do so. You will understand what we are saying once you read more about this disease that won't let you age.
Here we bring you such cases which are unique in medical history and seems unbelievable.

Brooke Greenberg of Baltimore was a unique case is medical history. Born on 8 January 1993, and Died 24 October 2013. She died after attaining twenty years of age. Most of us will have an image of fully grown girl by this detail. But she was just 30 in tall, weighed about 16 lb when she died. Her mental age was just of a nine month to 1 year old baby. This fact is enough to let you know when she stopped aging. Doctors call this condition as Syndrome X. Brooke Greenberg was the third child of their parents, out of 4 girl child. She was born 1 month premature and suffered various medical conditions by the age of five. In year 2009 it was found that her body parts were not developing as a coordinated body. Here mental age was not above 1 year, she was not able to speak but responds to sounds. Her bones were like of a 10 year old kid and she still had her baby teeth. She died due to bronchomalacia, which is a medical condition that usually occurs in children. Read more about Brooke Greenberg at wikipedia.

Another case is of Nicky Freeman from Australia. He was born in 1970. He still looks like a preteen boy. His story was published in various news reports. He was born one month overdue. His head was larger than usual and doctors told that he would not live as he had hydrocephalous - fluid on the brain. But he survived and still alive. According to doctors his bone structure is growing 4 times slower than usual. An article was published in The West about him with title "40 year old trapped in a Child's body". Her mother fears that his son's disabilities are due to anti-histamine, an anti-allergic medicine that she had during pregnancy. Four other women in her town had abortions due to that medicine and one had a child with disabilities. Mrs Freeman has got three other healthy children.

Gabby Williams is the second oldest kid of her parents. She has got five siblings and she is the smallest one. She was born in 2005. Still she has a face of newly born, body of a toddler and wears nappies, just like a newly  born. According to doctors, she was born with some abnormality in brain, damaged optic nerve, two heart defects, a cleft palate, and an abnormal swallowing reflex. She is blind from birth and still needs to be bottle-fed in every three hours. Some people call her real life Benjamin Button (character from Brad Pitt movie). It takes Gabby 4 years to age just one. At the time of birth doctors told Gabby's parents to expect the worst, but her parents poured all of their love for their kid.

María Audenete do Nascimento born on May 7, 1981 in Ceara, Brazil. She was born in a mud hut and raised in it. Now she is 36. At the age of 9 months its found that she is suffering from an auto-immune disease, hypothyroidism. She is 27 inches tall and weighs just 19 pounds. She was not able to walk or talk but just communicates like babies with sign language and gestures. Due to her poor financial status, she didn't get the required medical facilities else she might have grown. Her family was dependent of the aid given by tourists to get her treated till the age of 29. Then something changed as Record News interviewed her and provided her proper medical facilities. Later Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ceara provided her medical care for free. Now she can walk. Later Brazilian TV show Programa do Ratinho provided here free residence and it proved beneficial for her health and family.

Few more cases of Syndrome X are also reported recently. In July 2016 two such cases were reported. One was of Alyssa Pennington of New Mexico, who looks like 5 year old girl while she was 12. Other one was Jenifer Sandoval of Colorado, she looks like four years old while she is 22.

All these occurrences made medical community to take these cases as a chance to find something that can stop ageing process. However there are some people who strongly believe that stopping ageing will create abnormalities in body just like examples shown above. 

Superbug Bacteria Infection - An Artificial Disease

A recent incident of a Nevada woman dying from Superbug Infection that she probably got from India has raised the issue of lack of understanding of medicine use. Its not wrong if we say that Superbug is an artificially created disease by human ignorance. The bad thing about Superbug infection is that it can't be treted by any known antibiotic. Before we proceed further its important to know what is this Superbug Bacteria Infection.

Superbug Bacteria

Superbug Bacteria feature can be acquired by any common bacteria. This superbug feature makes it a superpower among other bacteria as it can't be killed by using any antibiotic. Superbug bacteria is made by adaptation in bacteria. But we the people who use antibiotics are responsible for this adaptation. Superbug is not created in a day. Its made by decades of use of antibiotics without any prescription from doctors.

How Superbug Bacteria is created ?

As we said earlier that Superbugs are not created in a day. These are invented by human ignorance towards usage of Antibiotics from past century (if not more). In most of the cases people don't have patience to visit a doctor and take any leftover antibiotics to treat their illness. They don't even care if they are suffering from a bacterial infection or a viral infection. In most of the cases a person suffering from common cold or flu, which is a viral infection, uses antibiotics. He/she have no idea how his/her illness is getting treated. Normal Cold and flu can be treated even without any medicine. But once they feel relieved they use those antibiotics again in future for same viral infection. This thing does on harm to virus but provides a good environment to bacteria to evolve and generate genes resistant to that particular antibiotic. The worst thing about bacteria is that they can carry and pass genes to next bacteria. Now if resistant genes of all different resistant bacteria ends up in one bacteria, then this bacteria becomes a Superbug, which can't be treated by any antibiotic available in the market.

Types of Superbug

Superbugs are usually named after the resistance they have acquired from a group of antibiotics. Here a few known superbugs that the affecting people around the globe.

  • MRSA: Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
  • C.Diff : Clostridium difficile
  • VRE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci
  • CRE : Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
  • CRKP : Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Necrotizing fasciitis : the flesh-eating bacterial disease

The Nevada Women who died recently due to the superbug was suffering from a  bacteria named New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM), a highly resistant form of CRE (carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae) .

Some of the bacteria that acquire the superbug gene are generally available on our skin or digestive system, but they are of no harm to us unless they become superbug due to our own mistake. For example Staphylococcus aureus is a normal bacteria present in our nose and respiratory system, but if it becomes resistant then it can become MRSA.

It is a social duty of ours to takes antibiotics only when necessary after prescription from a doctor and follow the complete course. If we take antibiotics at our own will then we will not only make ourselves prone to superbug infection but also those who are close to us.

Zika Virus Infection Symptoms Cure Treatment and Facts

Zika Virus

Family: Flaviviridae
genus: Flavivirus
Other viruses related to this family and genus are dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses.

Facts about Zika Virus Infection

  • Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, 10 kilobase positive-sense RNA genome.
  • There are two types of Zika Viruses according to their lineages. One is of African lineage and other is of Asian lineage. The virus spreading in America is 89% similar to African lineage.
  • Zika Virus Infection is spread by the female Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is active mostly in the daytime.
  • This Virus was first isolated in Zika Forest of Uganada during year 1947. The name of the the virus comes from that Zika Forest.

How does Zika Virus transmits in Humans ?

  • Zika Virus is primarily spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
  • This can also be transmitted through sexual contact.
  • Another common mode of transmission is blood transfusions.

Zika Virus Infection Symptoms
Zika virus causes fever commonly known as Zika Fever. Other symptoms of Zika infection are similar mild symptoms of Dengu. Other symptoms of Zika infection may include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, and a maculopapular rash.

Zika Virus Infection Cure
Zika virus infection can not be prevented by using any medication or vaccine. The best preventive measure is to prevent yourself from mosquito bites. Avoiding sexual contact with people showing symptoms of zika infection is also necessary if the infection has already spread in your locality.

Zika Virus Infection Treatment
There is no specific treatment of Zika Virus Infection. Paracetamol is normally used medicine for fever. Other treatments are done according to the symptoms to get rid from them. Getting admitted in hospital is rarely needed when the symptoms are not reduced.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Symptoms Infection Vaccine & Cure

Human Papillomavirus, inshort known as HPV, is a virus from Papillomavirus family. It has more than 170 different types. Its different types are designated with numbers, starting from HPV1 to HPV170. Most commonly its harmful to humans and found connected to cancer of different organs in human body. Cancer of the penis, anus, cervix, vulva, vagina, mouth, or throat can occur due to HPV infection.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Symptoms

In most of the cases the HPV infection causes no symptoms and get resolved spontaneously. But in some cases this Human Papillomavirus (HPV) persists and causes warts or precancerous lesions. Symptoms depend on the the type of HPV. HPV5 may remain your body throughout your life without any symptoms. Diseases connected to other HPV types are listed below.
HPV type Disease
2, 7, 22 Common warts
1, 2, 4, 63 Plantar warts
3, 10, 8 Flat warts
6, 11, 42, 44Anogenital warts
6, 16, 18, 31, 53, 58Anal dysplasia (lesions)
16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, 82 Genital cancers
more than 15 types Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
13, 32 Focal epithelial hyperplasia (mouth)
6, 7, 11, 16, 32 Mouth papillomas
16 Oropharyngeal cancer
60 Verrucous cyst
6, 11 Laryngeal papillomatosis

How does Human Papillomavirus spreads?

Usually Human Papillomavirus (HPV) spreads through sexual contact. Some factors increase the risk of HPV infection. These factors are Multiple partners, weak immune system, smoking and sex during teenage.

Some Facts about Human Papillomavirus

  • Its a DNA Virus
  • There are more than 150 types of HPV
  • More than 40 of its types spread through sexual contact.
  • It does not spread by toilet seats.
  • It can spread from a pregnant mother to her baby.
  • HPV only affects humans
  • Same person can get affected by more than one type of HPV
  • HPV is the most common STI (sexually transmitted infection) around the world.
  • In USA, 27000 cases of HPV infection are reported every year.
  • HPV16 and HPV18 are responsible for more than 70% cervical cancer cases.
  • HPV16 is responsible for more than 90% Anal Cancer cases.

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine can save you from HPV infection only if you are vaccinated before the infection happens. According to doctors the best age to get HPV Vaccine is between 9 to 13 years.

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Cure

The best cure for HPV infection to get vaccinated between 9 to 13 years of age and not indulging into sexual activities at an early age. Even if you are an adult its better to avoid multiple partners and practicing safe sex.

Cancer and Human Papillomavirus

As we have stated earlier that Cancer of the penis, anus, cervix, vulva, vagina, mouth, or throat can occur due to HPV infection. More than 90% of the Cervical Cancer occur due to HPV16 and HPV18. More than 60% of all other cancers occur due to different types of Human Papillomavirus.

Celiac Disease Test Diagnosis Treatment & Diet

Celiac Disease Definition

Celiac Disease is a medical condition in which our small intestine become hypersensitive to gluten and causes difficulty in digestion of food. Its a genetic autoimmune disorder where the indigestion of gluten can also cause damage in small intestine.

If this disease remain undiagnosed then it causes long term health complications. 1 in every 100 person is affected by this disease. According to two and one-half million Americans don't even know that they are suffering from this disease. As shown in the image, Celiac disease damages the internal layer of small intestine. It flattens the surface of small intestine and thus the food flows more easily than required for proper digestion. The finger like projections in small intestine are used to absorb nutrients from food. Damage to these structures lead to indigestion and nutrient deficiency.

Celiac Disease Symptoms

  • Depression
  • ADHD-like behavior
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Headaches
  • Bone or Joint Pain
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Constipation

Long term health risks connected to Celiac disease are

  • Anemia (Iron deficiency)
  • Malfunctioning of Gall bladder
  • Infertility and miscarriage
  • Early onset osteoporosis or osteopenia
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Diseases related to deficiency of Vitamin and minerals
  • Nervous System disorders
  • Pancreatic insufficiency

Celiac Disease is also found connected with other autoimmune disorders such as thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes.

Celiac Disease Test Diagnosis

Screening Test: Screening test for Celiac Disease can be done by simple blood test. There are some antibodies in our blood which should be in normal range even after having a gluten diet. Therefore this test is done after having gluten diet (not gluten free diet). If these antibodies rise more than normal in your blood then you need to go through a confirmation test.
Endoscopic Biopsy:  Endoscopic Biopsy of the small intestine is the confirmation test for Celiac Disease, which confirms the damage done by these antibodies in our blood.

Celiac Disease Treatment & Diet

The most effective and primary treatment of Celiac Disease is Gluten Free Diet. In most of the cases the this diet reduces the symptoms gradually. Those suffering from Celiac Disease should strictly avoid wheat, rye and barley in their food. Therefore doctors suggest to stay away from bread and beer. Even eating the bread crumbs can start intestinal damage.
If you are diagnosed positive for Celiac Disease then you should go to your doctor for follow-up on a regular basis.

HIV Symptoms in Men and Women | Signs of AIDS

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is considered as one of the most dangerous virus in the history of diseases in mankind. The infection caused by this virus is called AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

AIDS is a STD (Sexually Transmitted Disease) and people often suspect themselves at its risk after an unprotected intercourse. People often try to diagnose it themselves, without going for a test. The best way to diagnose a HIV infection is to get it diagnosed in a lab. But still we will tell HIV symptoms in Men and Women. These are signs of AIDS but not 100%. If you feel that you are feeling some of those symptoms then don't conclude that you are suffering from AIDS. These symptoms also belong to some other diseases. But if you were indulged in some risky behavior in recent past then you may be at risk.

HIV Symptoms are usually same in both Men and Women. Women have a few extra organs compared to men and immune system of women is expanded into these organs, so women feel few extra symptoms related to those organs. Most of the common HIV symptoms of men and women are listed below.

HIV Symptoms in Men and Women

  • Fatigue: HIV infection often makes you getting tired early compared to your previous stamina. Fatigue is caused due to inflammatory response caused by immune system.
  • Acute Retroviral Syndrome (ARS): This is a condition when you experience flu like symptoms. A mild fever of around 102 degree is also noticed.
  • Short term Nausea: 30 to 60% patients in the early stages of HIV infection experience Short- term nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Weight Loss: HIV infection can cause weight loss in a short period of time even if you are having a good diet.
  • Skin Rashes: Rashes on the trunk of body and boil-like pink areas on arms are both early and late symptoms of AIDS.
  • Swollen Lymph Nodes: Lymph Nodes are a part of our body's immune system and Lymph Nodes usually get inflamed when HIV is present in our body.
  • Muscle and Joint Pain: People often take it as a viral infection but sometimes muscle and joint pain is a result of HIV infection.
  • Prolonged Dry Cough: Dry Cough is an early symptom of HIV infection.
  • Confusion and Difficulty in Concentration: This symptom is often taken as a psychiatric problem, but its a sign of HIV- related dementia. Its also accompanied by memory and behavioral problems.
  • Numbness or Tingling sensation: numbness and tingling sensation is also noticed in some cases of HIV AIDS.
  • Menstrual Irregularities: Menstrual irregularities are also noticed by women suffering from HIV Infection.

Note: In the early stages of HIV infection its hard to detect it. Most of the HIV tests depend on the antibodies generated by body to combat HIV infection. But in the early stage of HIV body don't produce any antibodies, hence its hard to be traced as HIV positive.

HIV Virus attacks the immune system of our body and destroys its ability to combat with different types of infections and diseases. Therefore our body become prone to other diseases and its becomes hard to get rid of those diseases with medicines.

Researches are going on to find an answer to HIV virus. We hope that mankind will find an answer to AIDS and millions of lives can be saved.

Occasionally Hearing a Buzzing sound in your Ear / Head

A number of people often hear ringing, buzzing or whistling sound in their ears. Some often worry if its something wrong or its just a normal fact. For your knowledge its a common phenomena. Mostly it occurs in one ear only and lasts for a minute or two. But if that buzzing sound don't fade up in two minutes and continues to appear or if it occurs more often then you are suffering from Tinnitus and you should consult a doctor.

Why do we occasionally hear Buzzing Sound in Ear

There are some hair cells inside our ear (on the walls of inner ear) which help us in hearing. These hair cells catches the vibrations in outer world and send its electrical signals to our brain through some nerves. This process is to help us in hearing. But when sometimes something goes wrong with any one of these hair cells and it sends the signal of continuous beep sound to our brain. That is when we hear the whistle sound. But our brain detects this defect in a few seconds. To stop this sound our brain disconnects the nerves from that particular hair cell to stop that whistle sound. Thus within a minute or two everything is normalized and beep sound disappears gradually. (Human body is more genius than we think.)

The phenomena of Ringing in Ears is known as Tinnitus in medical terminology. Tinnitus becomes a problem when the whistle sound don't disappear. In that case your general physician may refer you to a specialist called Audiologist.

What causes Tinnitus

There are various reason which can cause tinnitus but the most common is exposure to noise. Other reasons for Tinnitus are

  • Stress
  • Some underlying disease
  • Head injuries
  • Lack of Sleep
  • Lack of Sodium in body

Smoking can make tinnitus more critical as the amount of oxygen that reaches brain is reduced.

Tinnitus Side Effects

  • Hearing Loss
  • Fear
  • Insomnia
  • Depression

Some Facts about tinnitus

  • Sometimes people think that its the sound in their imagination as nobody else hears it. But reality is that its a real sound in your head.
  • Tinnitus is the condition when that sound disturbs you for hours or just don't go off ever.
  • Pulsatile Tinnitus is the condition when that whistle/buzzing sound appears with the rhythm of your heartbeat.
  • Almost everybody experiences temporary Tinnitus various times during a lifetime.
  • The sound heard in tinnitus is different for different people.
  • 10% of the UK population suffers from tinnitus according to an estimate by British Tinnitus Association. 10 to 18% population around the world suffers from tinnitus.
  • There is no exact cure of tinnitus. Most of the treatments just lower the disturbing sound or just teaches you to live with it. However some therapies are still under research and hope is still there.

Pulmonary Hypertension

What is Pulmonary Hypertension ?

Pulmonary Hypertension is life threatening disease. It affects the arteries in lungs and right ventricle of heart. Pulmonary Hypertension begins from narrowing of pulmonary arteries in lungs, which makes blood flow harder. It makes our heart (especially right ventricle) to pump blood with more pressure, which eventually weakens the heart muscles and may lead to heart fail.

Is Pulmonary Hypertension Curable ?

No, Pulmonary Hypertension is not curable, But symptoms of this disease can be reduced with proper treatment. So its better to take treatment if you are diagnosed for this disease. Proper treatment will increase your quality of life.

Pulmonary Hypertension Symptoms

Pulmonary Hypertension don't show any major symptoms in earlier stages. People often treat its symptoms as symptoms of some other diseases. As time passes by the symptoms of Pulmonary Hypertension become worse.

Some common symptoms of Pulmonary Hypertension are:

  • Short Breath, initially during some physical activity and eventually at rest.
  • Feeling tired in less physical activity.
  • Chest Pressure or Pain
  • Swelling in ankles, legs and abdomen.
  • Occasional Fainting
  • Bluish lips and skin.
  • Fast pulse rate

What are the causes of Pulmonary Hypertension?

Narrowing of the pulmonary arteries in lungs are the main cause of Pulmonary Hypertension. The main reason behind narrowing of these arteries is mostly connected to other diseases such as

  • Clots in Lungs
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Inborn heart defects
  • AIDS
  • Emphysema
  • Scleroderma or Lupus
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Cirrhosis
  • Pulmonary Fibrosis
  • Living or climbing at altitudes higher than 8000 feet.

Sometimes Pulmonary Hypertension is caused due to unknown reasons. In such cases doctors take it as a genetic disorder and name it Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension (IPH).

Is there some treatment for Pulmonary Hypertension?

Yes, there are a variety of treatments depending upon the severity and underlying secondary disease which may be causing Pulmonary Hypertension. If its due to some other disease then treatment og that disease will make positive impact on Pulmonary Hypertension. But if you are suffering from IPH, then there are different type of medications to reverse the effect. There are some medicines to treat the arteries and reverse the narrowing. In some cases some pills to dilute the blood can also be used. Some drugs come in the form of IV and inhalers to treat Pulmonary Hypertension.
In some rare cases open heart surgery and transplantation is the last option to save the life.

Can some lifestyle changes help you live a better life with Pulmonary Hypertension ?

Yes, lifestyle changes can help a lot in living with Pulmonary Hypertension. This disease can't be permanently cured but lifestyle changes can reduce the symptoms.

  • Don't Smoke and avoid passive smoking
  • Get Plenty of Rest
  • If you are a lady, then don't become pregnant.
  • Stay Active but consult your doctor about your activity/exercise schedule.
  • Avoid travelling to high altitudes.
  • Reduce Stress by doing Yoga
  • Get a diet full of nutrients and maintain a healthy weight.