Transplant of Eye is Impossible ! Truth about Donating Eyes

Have you seen advertisements that convince you to donate eyes ? What if we tell you that transplant of eyes is impossible. You must be thinking how can it be. What are they doing with donated eyes, if they are not fixed in someone else's eye sockets. There are various organizations working around the world to convince people for donating eyes and help someone else to see the world through your eyes. You must have seen the same thing in various movies, where a person on death bed donates eyes and the recipient gets the same eyes (even same color) as the donor, which brings tears in the eyes of audience. If you ask a specialist, then it can never happen. Enough suspense ! Lets tell the truth.

Only Cornea is Transplanted

Cornea is the transparent outer layer of eye, which is transplanted. Cornea is the only part of body which survives without blood supply or blood vessels. It gets oxygen directly from air. Other nutrients reach cornea through the liquid that surrounds it and tears that wipe down our eyes while blinking. This fact of no blood supply makes it easier to be transplanted in any recipient irrespective of blood group, unlike other organ transplants where donor and recipient need to be of same blood group.

More about Cornea Transplant

Cornea has six layers: epithelium, Bowman's layer, stoma, Dua's layer, Descemet's membrane and endothelium. All these six layer work together to focus the image correctly. Most of the blindness occur due to problems in cornea. Here are some facts:

  • While transplanting the cornea, surgeon don't need to cut or join any blood vessels.
  • Cornea transplant don't need any anti-rejection medication.
  • Usually people suffering from conditions like Cancer can't donate organs, but cornea can be donated even by such patients after confirming with doctors.
  • Very first corneal transplant was done in late 1800s and is being done routinely since 1960.
  • Around 44000 corneal transplants are done every year.
  • Artificial corneas are used in 400 to 500 corneal transplants every year.

Why Complete Eye Transplant is Impossible ?

An average Human Eye has got 2 million working parts and each eye is connected to brain through 1 million nerve fibers. These nerve fibers that connect eye to our brain is known as optic nerve, and it is one of the most complex organs to transplant. Even after so much advancement it would not be possible to transplant complete eye in near future.

What do they do with the rest of donated eye, if not transplanted ?

Most of the people think that eye donation means taking complete eye out of the eye socket, which is not true. In most of the cases it is just cornea donation. In such cases only the cornea of the deceased donor is taken by doctors within 4 to 8 hours of death. In very rare cases complete eyes are donated. Even in those cases only the cornea is used for transplant, while the rest of the eye is used for research purpose and training of medical professionals, before they work on live subjects.

Note: Color of eye never changes after corneal transplant, as color of our eye depends on iris which is  not transplanted in such procedures.

Mysterious Lesser Known facts about Eyes

These facts about human eyes will make you understand the value of gift given to you by nature. Most of us take this precious gift as granted and don't even take proper care of it. However our whole body is a precious gift of nature, but our eyes are most important of them, as we can't look at this nature without them.
Our eyes evolved to capture light, the fastest known thing. We could have evolved to capture sound waves to see, like Bats. It took millions of year to evolve and a lot of natural selection before we become what we are today. Lets learn something more about our mysterious eyes and how they are different from others.

Evaluating Eye in Digital World


  • You must know that each of your eye is a 576 megapixel camera.
  • Human eye can focus on 50 things per second.
  • An average human eye have 2 million working parts.
  • Human eye can detect 500 shades of grey and 10 million different colors.
  • Physiologically human eye has got a frame rate of 1000 frames/sec. But if  videos of different frame rates are played on a screen, then we can't tell the difference after 150 frames/sec.
  • If you have faced "red-eye" effect in photos, then you must know that it occurs due to flash as the light bounces off from the back of eyes where a number of blood vessels exist and make it appear red.

Amazing Colors of Eyes


  • Different Color of our eyes is due to Melanin, which is also responsible for our skin color. Brown eyes means more melanin (which is a dark brown pigment), while blue eyes means lesser melanin which makes it a bit see through and blue colored collagen on the inner end gives them a bluish touch. Very first human with blue eyes existed 6000 to 10000 years ago. 
  • Only 2% humans have green eyes which is caused due to some pigmentation in iris.
  • There are six colors of human eyes which occurs due to pigmentation in iris. These colors are amber, blue, brown, gray, green, hazel and red.
  • Heterochromia is a condition where both eyes are of different colors. Alexander-the-great also had this condition.

Our Brain Sees, not Eyes


  • Each of our eye is connect to our brain through 1 million nerve fibers.
  • Muscles responsible for blinking the eye are fastest muscles in our body, so we don't miss a scene. We can blink our eyes five times in a second. We blink more while talking and lesser while reading. On an average we blink 17 time per minute.
  • To compensate for the frame-loss during blinking our brain generates the intermediate frames, which our eyes actually doesn't see. In total this time is equivalent to 10% of our daily waking hours. So 10% of what we see is actually made-up by our brain, its not real. Our brain is the actual organ that see, eyes are just an input medium.
  • Human eyes actually capture upside down image, our brain flips it to see objects correctly. If you wear some goggles that makes you see objects upside-down for a few days, then your brain can fix this glitch and you will feel normal vision through those glasses.

Some More Facts about Human Eye


  • Light sensitive cells in our eyes are known as rods and cones. There are 100 million Rod cells which make us see in dark, while 7 million cones make us see the color and details.
  • Cone cell are of three types to differentiate red, green and blue.
  • Human eye can detect a burning candle from 30 mile (48 km) distance in a clear dark night.
  • Eyes can heal scratches in 48 hours. It continuously cleans any dirt through blinking.
  • Human eyes are so complex that they can't be transplanted.
  • Cornea of eye is the only living part of body that don't need blood supply. It gets oxygen directly from air.
  • A fingerprint may have 40 different characteristics while an iris have 256 different characteristics, which makes eyes a better option for bio-metric scanning.
  • Night-vision goggles are green because we can see more shades of green than any other color.
  • Our eyes take 15 to 20 minutes to adjust from a bright room to a dark room. This time is roughly equal to the time taken for sun set.

Animal Eyes vs Human Eyes


  • However most of the other animals also have eyes, but they are usually different from humans. Most of the animals rely on their smelling sense to give more clarity to their vision. 
  • There is a misconception that dogs and cats have grey vision, which is not true. Cats have more rods cells, so they see better at night and see lesser colors than humans. Cats can see blue and green, but shades of red are confusing for them.
  • Dogs are also better at night vision and have red-green color blindness. But they can analyse shades of grey better than humans. Dogs are also very nearsighted, but their hearing sense and smelling sense works far better than us, thus we misunderstand that they see better than us.
  • Horse's eyes are similar to dogs but they have a 350 degree monocular vision which gives them the ability to see behind them. But depth perception of horse is not as good as humans.
  • Eagle's eyes are better than humans as they are evolved to track their prey from heights. If our eyes get as better as an Eagle then we can see an ant on ground from 10th floor of a building. Similarly sharks have 10 times better clarity in their underwater vision. Its evolution. Don't feel inferior if you can't see better than an Eagle or Shark. These beings evolved according to their surrounding and need. 

Today humans have extended their vision through telescopes, microscopes, satellites, radars and sonars. With these machines we can even even see those spectrum that we can't see through our biological eyes.
Take care of your eyes and keep scrolling though BetterHealthFacts.com .

Smoking and COVID19 : Worst Combination

If you are a smoker then you might not like reading this article. It is not meant to make your fearful, but to make you quit smoking to save your life. Lets begin with some common data that we are listening in news. All News channels are saying that old age and lifestyle disease like diabetes and hypertension are the major reason behind death by COVID19. So we tried to collect the data about these diseases and compared it with those countries where death toll due to COVID19 is above 500. As of 24th Apr, we found 25 such countries. Here is the data that we collected along with the diseases data.

CountryCOVID19
Mortality
Obesity
Rate
Average
BMI
Belgium15.1622.125.5
France13.8321.625.3
United Kingdom13.4927.827.3
Italy13.4519.926
Sweden12.0620.625.8
Netherlands11.6720.425.4
Spain10.423.826.7
Mexico9.1928.928.1
Indonesia8.322522.9
Brazil6.6622.125.9
Iran6.325.826.2
US5.7536.228.8
China5.535.523.9
Switzerland5.4414.925.3
Romania5.422.525.3
Canada5.1829.427.2
Ecuador5.0119.927
Ireland4.5125.327.5
Portugal3.6720.826.2
Germany3.6422.326.3
Austria3.4820.125.4
India3.12521.9
Peru2.7458.226.3
Turkey2.4532.127.8
Russia0.8823.126.5
The above table lists the countries according to mortality rate (high to low), along with Obesity and Average BMI of those countries. If you look at the data, you can't find a direct relationship between COVID19 Mortality and Obesity/BMI of those countries. In the above data Obesity ranges from 5 to 58.2. In this data you can't say that Obesity is higher in countries with highest COVID19 Mortality. Same applies on Average BMI as well, which is ranging from 21.9 to 28.8.

Now the next table compare the COVID19 Mortality with Diabetes and Asthma.
CountryCOVID19
Mortality
DiabetesAsthma
Belgium15.164.64.66
France13.834.86.55
United Kingdom13.493.99.11
Italy13.4553.67
Sweden12.064.88.57
Netherlands11.675.47.24
Spain10.46.95.24
Mexico9.1913.53.58
Indonesia8.326.35.26
Brazil6.6610.44.88
Iran6.39.64.41
US5.7510.85.45
China5.539.27.92
Switzerland5.445.76.18
Romania5.46.92.69
Canada5.187.64.45
Ecuador5.015.55.77
Ireland4.513.28.71
Portugal3.679.84.66
Germany3.6410.45.33
Austria3.486.62.48
India3.1210.45.21
Peru2.746.64.99
Turkey2.4511.15.19
Russia0.886.12.98
If we look at the above data, then Diabetes don't seem to have an effect COVID19 Mortality. In the above table diabetes prevalence among these countries ranges from 3.2 to 13.5.  You can't say that diabetes is real culprit here. But if you take a look at Asthma prevalence, then is a bit suspicious. In the above list Asthma is most prevalent in United Kingdom, which has got the third highest COVID19 mortality.
The next table compares COVID19 mortality with smoking.
CountryCOVID19
Mortality
Smoking
Belgium15.162440.9
France13.831089.9
United Kingdom13.49827.7
Italy13.451493.3
Sweden12.06716.2
Netherlands11.671459.9
Spain10.41499
Mexico9.19327.1
Indonesia8.321675.5
Brazil6.66333.5
Iran6.3936.5
US5.751016.6
China5.53976.5
Switzerland5.441489.8
Romania5.42043
Canada5.181204.3
Ecuador5.011021.3
Ireland4.511133.4
Portugal3.671599.5
Germany3.641927
Austria3.4889.3
India3.1297.7
Peru2.7493.5
Turkey2.451770.7
Russia0.882295
The above list contain the number of cigarettes per year per person. This table clearly shows that COVID19 Mortality is highest in Belgium, which has also got highest smoking rate. Its reverse is also true. Austria, India and Peru, where COVID19 Mortality is on the lowest side have got the least smoking rate.

Conclusion : According to this minor research it is clearly visible that smoking is a major culprit behind COVID19 mortality. Asthma can also be suggested as a risk factor. More research can be done on these findings to give a more precise result.

Note: You may not control Asthma, but you can quit smoking to keep yourself on safer side from COVID19. Some researchers believe that sooner or later this novel coronavirus will spread in whole humanity, so it is safer for all smokers to quit smoking as soon as possible, and recover your lungs to fight against this pandemic. 
Save Yourself, 
Save your Family, 
Save your Community, 
Save your Country. 

COVID19 : US vs China

Coronavirus Disease COVID19 has made us suffer a lot. Present generations have never witnessed such a large scale infectious disease. Most of us just heard about such diseases from our grandparents. Some people believe that this massive spread of COVID19 is just due to high-speed travel available now, which was not there centuries ago, and it is just a coincidence that this virus (SARS-CoV-2) came out of some animal reservoir and infected humans. But some people believe that it is not a coincidence, it is either some sort of biological warfare or some biological experiment gone wrong. Most of the people around the globe are blaming China for spreading this deadly disease, but governments are not so aggressive in blaming China (might be due to some economical concerns).
According to present information COVID19 originated in Wuhan, China. And now US is its latest epicenter. Both China and US are considered as top players in world economy, so it is hard to believe if it is a coincidence or a plan. Here we have collected some stats of COVID19 spread in both China and US. Just give it a look.
The two graphs given below show the cases and deaths reported in US and China.
If we check the death graph, then we can see a sudden jump in China-death count on 17th-Apr-2020 . It elevated from 3346 to 4636, an increase of 1290 deaths in a single day. Chinese official said that this sudden increase is due because previously deaths outside hospitals were not reported, and now they have collected the data. It is hard to believe because they didn't increase the cases count in the same manner. You may check the China-data of these days.

  • In the above data you may check that on 17-Apr number of deaths increased by 1290, but number of cases increased by just 357 (i.e from 83403 to 83760). Does it mean that China already knew about those cases but didn't bother to check if those people were dead or recovered. It is hard to believe that no health worker tried to find if a COVID19 patient died or recovered.
  • One more abnormality of this data is that on the same day number of recovered patients decreased from 78401 to 77552, a decrease of 849. Usually cases just rise in such data, not decrease. It only means that some COVID19-positive cases were previously falsely reported by them as recovered, while they were actually dead. If they were not really sure about status of those patients then they should not have added them in recovered count, but as active cases.
These abnormality in the data provided by China, surely looks suspicious.
But the sudden change in number of number of deaths changed one thing, the Mortality-Rate. It increased the mortality rate in China from 4 to 5.5 (just equal to US) , as you can see in the chart below.
Previously most of the countries were asking why the mortality rate was so low in China, compared to other countries. By increasing the Death toll, china has tried to do some damage control.
What do you think about this step taken by China ? Please feel free to mention your view in comments section.

COVID19 Mortality Rate (Worst Affected Countries)

COVID19 disease has caused a huge loss of lives in almost every country of the globe. Here we have listed a LIVE database of countries according to mortality rate. This data updates itself everyday and contain only those countries where death toll is above 500.

Austria COVID19 Updated Stats: Cases, Deaths, Recovery

The whole world is fighting a war against COVID19, a disease caused by virus named SARS-CoV-2. Here is the updated data of infections and causalities caused by this enemy in Austria. This database get updated automatically every midnight. Here we have tried to show the disaster caused by COVID19 in form of graphs that you can understand easily. We hope this pandemic will end soon.

Ireland COVID19 Updated Stats: Cases, Deaths, Recovery

The whole world is fighting a war against COVID19, a disease caused by virus named SARS-CoV-2. Here is the updated data of infections and causalities caused by this enemy in Ireland. This database get updated automatically every midnight. Here we have tried to show the disaster caused by COVID19 in form of graphs that you can understand easily. We hope this pandemic will end soon.

Peru COVID19 Updated Stats: Cases, Deaths, Recovery

The whole world is fighting a war against COVID19, a disease caused by virus named SARS-CoV-2. Here is the updated data of infections and causalities caused by this enemy in Peru. This database get updated automatically every midnight. Here we have tried to show the disaster caused by COVID19 in form of graphs that you can understand easily. We hope this pandemic will end soon.

Portugal COVID19 Updated Stats: Cases, Deaths, Recovery

The whole world is fighting a war against COVID19, a disease caused by virus named SARS-CoV-2. Here is the updated data of infections and causalities caused by this enemy in Portugal. This database get updated automatically every midnight. Here we have tried to show the disaster caused by COVID19 in form of graphs that you can understand easily. We hope this pandemic will end soon.

Switzerland COVID19 Updated Stats: Cases, Deaths, Recovery

The whole world is fighting a war against COVID19, a disease caused by virus named SARS-CoV-2. Here is the updated data of infections and causalities caused by this enemy in Switzerland. This database get updated automatically every midnight. Here we have tried to show the disaster caused by COVID19 in form of graphs that you can understand easily. We hope this pandemic will end soon.