The Truth behind Body Odors and your Sweat

Body Odor is the signature of a person and sniff dogs use these odors to find someone. Humans have also devoted a lot of money and time to get rid of body odor or to have a good body fragrance. People use different perfumes and deodorants to smell good but it is hard to get rid of body odor. Some good fragrance may override it for few hours but eventually body odor will come back. What is the reason behind behind body odor ? Is it due to sweat or something else ? You will get answers to such question further in this article.

Why do we have Body Odors?
Body odor is created by certain chemical reactions made by microorganisms living on our skin and the sweat that we produce. More body odor is produced in certain regions such as armpits because the sweat produced there is different from other body parts. There are different micro organisms residing on different parts of skin and different type of sweat is produced on different regions which make our body smell different. The more we sweat, the more we smell.

The science behind Body Odor

We have got two type of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine. Eccrine glands are present all over the body and their sweat is mostly made up of water, as it works to cool down the body and regulate the temperature. Apocrine glands are only at some targeted locations, such as armpits, and their sweat is mostly proteins and lipids. Bacterias residing on these locations feed on that protein. When the outer layer of protein is broken by these bacteria, certain amount of smell is produced.
  • There are around 50 thousand sweat glands on our body.
  • We produce up to one liter of sweat a day and also release harmful toxins through it.
  • Feet, groin and armpit regions produce more body odor due to presence of apocrine glands. 
  • Lesser ventilation in these areas make it an ideal place for bacteria to grow.
  • Body odor of another person helps us in accepting or rejecting him/her. It is just like we accept or reject a food item on the basis of its smell. Body odor of a person is an important factor behind attraction.
Why Body Odor is different in every person ?
There are various factors that decide the body odor of a person. Some of them are listed below.
  • Apocrine glands of different people secrete different composition of proteins and lipids. Apart from that the microbes residing on their skin can also be different. This overall difference can easily change their body odor to a great extent. 
  • Genetics play an important role in body odor. People in blood relation may have slightly similar body odor but a sniff dog can easily distinguish them.
  • The proteins that are released with sweat depends on food that you eat. So your diet is also a factor that decides your body odor.
  • Hygiene factor such as bathing also decides your body odor. If a person don't take a bath on daily basis then bacteria count on his/her skin will be high and so does odor.
  • Health conditions can also affect the proteins released in our sweat which changes the body odor.
  • If a person is nervous, anxious or under stress then he/she produces more smelly sweat due to change in protein secretion in sweat.
  • Overweight people have folds in their skin which makes it a better place for bacteria to grow and produce more body odor.
  • A woman smells more when she is going through the most fertile state of menstrual cycle.
  • Medication that you are taking can also affect your body odor.
  • Climatic condition also affect the body odor.
Is body odor a fragrance or a bad smell ?
However now we take body odor as a bad smell but the biological truth of animal kingdom is that male and female of are attracted to each other through body odor which helps in the process of reproduction. Genes of only those are forwarded in next generation who smell better than others. But humans evolved their own science of fragrance and developed perfumes to override body odor to attract others.
  • Deodorants mask the smell with a fragrance
  • Perfumes were just to put on clothes to override your body odor.
  • Probiotic deodorant promote certain bacterial colonies which can make you smell better.
  • Antiperspirants reduce the amount of sweat.
Now you must have known that body odor is caused by interaction between your own body proteins and some good bacteria on your skin. Body odor is produced only because you are feeding some good bacteria on your skin. It is good to take a bath daily to keep your skin bacteria count to a limited level which also keeps your body odor under control. You may feel sometimes that you are smelling bad because your nose is at the shortest distance from you armpit, but a person standing even in front of you might not find it as bad (someone might like it, especially opposite gender).

Deadliest Viruses in the World

Viral infections we discovered in late nineteenth century and since they were known for some of the deadliest diseases in the world. The worst thing about some of the deadliest viruses in the world is that most of them don't have any effective vaccine or medicine to treat them. Treatment for some of the infections is done just by treating the symptoms.

Here we have listed some of the deadliest viruses in the world.

  • Smallpox: This deadly disease scared humans for thousands of years. 90% of native american population was killed by this disease. In 20th century alone more that 300 million people died due to smallpox. Worst thing about this disease was that it kills one-third of the infected people and leaves the rest with either blindness or lifelong scars on the body. In 1980 World Health Assembly declared the world free from smallpox.
  • Rabies: Vaccine against rabies was developed in 1920 and given to pets so that this infection can't be spread to humans. However its treatment is possible, but if you don't get it on time then there are 100% chances of death of a person. Rabies is a deadly virus which destroys the brain. India and Africa are the worst affected regions by this deadly virus.
  • Marbug Virus: This infection was discovered in 1967 when some lab workers in Germany were infected through some infected monkeys imported from Uganda. High fevers and bleeding throughout the body caused organ failure killed 25% of infected people in that outbreak. Its outbreak in 1998-2000 and 2005 at Conga and Angola respectively was responsible for 80% mortality.
  • Ebola: Its first outbreak was discovered in 1976 in Congo. Its 2014 outbreak in West Africa was the deadliest. Its mortality rate ranges from 50 to 71% for different strains of the bacteria.
  • HIV: Human Immune Virus (HIV) is responsible for one of deadliest diseases that humans have faced without any effective treatment. HIV causes AIDS which destroys our immune system and the infected person easily gets several other diseases and finally dies after a long struggle. More than 36 million people have died due to HIV since 1980, when it was first discovered.
  • Hantavirus: Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) gained the attention of scientific community in 1993 when a young couple in US collapsed to it within few days after complaining about shortness of breath. Later it was found that same outbreak happened during Korean war where 3000 troops were infected and 12% died due to it. Researches found that people get infected by this virus from exposure to the droppings of infected mice. It has killed 36% of the 600 infected people in US so far.
  • Influenza: Normally we know this disease by the name Flu. According to WHO the normal mortality due to flu in a season in around 500,000 . Worst ever spread of a flu strain was Spanish flu which began in 1918 and infected 40 percent of world's population and killed around 50 million people. According to scientific community if a new and developed strain of influenza emerges than it could be worst than 1918 spread.
  • H5N1 Bird Flu: This virus is a subtype of the influenza A virus and it has recently feared a number of people around the world. Recent Asian Strain of H5N1 was reported to have a mortality rate of 60%.
  • Dengu: This virus has easy access to around 40% of worlds population as mosquitoes are its carrier and its newer strains are often reported. This virus was first reported in 1950 in Philippines and Thailand. 50 to 100 million people are infected every year by this virus. Its mortality rate is 2.5% and mostly kids and old age people are worst affected by it due to weaker immune system. In some cases dengu can cause ebola-like disease known as "dengue hemorrhagic fever" where mortality rate is above 20% .
  • Rotavirus: This virus affects kids upto age of 5 years and it killed around 453,000 children in year 2008 around the world. It causes severe diarrheal illness and it spreads through fecal-oral route. Its vaccine is available in market and has sharply declined the cases of rotavirus infection.
  • CCHF: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne virus and first discovered in 1944 in Crimea. Its infection causes initial symptoms like fever and headache and later leads to nosebleeds and uncontrolled bleeding. Mortality in CCHF infection remains between nine to fifty percent.
  • West Nile Virus (WNV):  This virus in mosquito borne and prior to 1990 it was not considered as a threat. Its outbreak in Algeria in 1994 and in New York City in 1999 changed that perception as it caused neurological disease among the infected people causing inflammation of the brain. During year 2012 WNV killed 286 people in US. There is no vaccine for this deadly virus till date.

Instead of getting feared by these viruses, it is better to remain prepared. If you are visiting any of the countries known for these viruses then it is better to get vacinated if possible and having cleanliness around you. Better hygiene means better health. 

Why Viruses are more harmful than Bacteria for Humans

Virus and Bacteria, both are known as harmful microorganisms that can harm our body. But virus has got a bad reputation compared to bacteria. Bacteria are sometimes good for us as they help in several functions of body, but it is not same for virus. Virus are known for some of the worst diseases that mankind has faced, such as HIV and Ebola. Virus are usually harmful and we will tell you the reason why.

What is a virus?
Virus is a protein, either DNA or RNA. It is a genetic material which needs some host cell to survive. So you can say that virus is a genetic material with no cell. Cell is known as the smallest living entity. Virus don't have a cell of their own, so they are always in need of a host cell that they can infect to multiply themselves.

Size of virus vs bacteria
Virus vary in size and they range from 17 nanometer to 1000 nanometer. One nanometer is 0.000000001 m. This size is so small that you can't see it even with a light microscope. Electron Microscope are necessary to study a virus. Size of virus is so small that they can be compared to atoms. Size of a hydrogen atom is 0.1 nanometer. Bacteria are much bigger than virus. They range from 200 to 10000 nanometer.

When were Virus discovered ?
Existence of virus was suspected near the end of nineteenth century when biologists were unable to find any bacteria responsible for some diseases/infections. They found these microorganisms much smaller than bacteria and they were unable to multiply in a solution as they were extracted out of a living body.

Virus is neither dead nor alive !
Viruses can't live on their own, so some biologists consider them as dead. They need a host body made up of living cells to let them survive. When virus enter a cell, then it replicates its proteins and infects other cells, which makes it something living. Virus is something between living and dead. It is a non-living genetic code without any cell and needs a host cell to be something living.

Are viruses more harmful than Bacteria ?
Yes, in most of the cases. Name of diseases like Ebola and AIDS can take your breath away. But there are some nasty bacteria like Neisseria meningitidis which can make you dead within a  day even after taking antibiotics. Some bacteria are equally harmful as viruses. There are lesser medicines to fight viral infections. New generations of resistant bacteria are equally harmful as we don't have any antibiotic to kill them.

Why viruses are more dangerous ?
It is because of the fact that virus can infect a cell. Both bacteria and human cell are prone to that infection. Virus is not a separate entity, as it infects by entering itself into a cell. Virus is nothing but a genetic code which disrupts the working of a cell and then starts multiplying itself. There are several good bacteria inside the human body, which can also be infected with a virus. To kill a virus we need to kill the infected cell itself which makes it more harmful for any living creature including humans.

How do our immune system fights with virus ?
Different types of white blood cells (WBC) are main part of our immune system and they can reach any part of body as they reside in the blood. Our body makes millions of them in the bone marrow every day. Macrophages (a type of WBC) destroy any germ that the detect inside the body, but virus infected cells need more advanced defense system. In order to do that more advance WBC known as T and B lymphocytes come into action. B cells make antibodies that bind themselves to virus infected cell in order to tag them and stop them from replicating. T cells act as the guard dog and informs other cells of immune system about the viral infection. Now other cells of our immune system can easily identify these tagged infected cells and kill them to destroy the virus completely. Even when a virus a destroyed some advance T and B cells creates an "acquired immunity" in our body to make our body more safe from the same virus. This acquired immunity can sometimes save our body from the same virus for complete life.

Even after all these facts about virus and bacteria, virus should be considered as more harmful. Our body has already got more bacterial cells in it than human cells. So we are more bacterial than human. But virus is something harmful to both bacteria and human cells. Virus can infect even a bacteria.

How do Bacterial cells differ from Human cells

Bacteria are microorganisms known to cause infections and diseases in humans. However this fact is widely misunderstood as our body has got more bacterial cells than human cells. Most of the bacteria are good for us and just a few percent of them are harmful for us. Those few percent of bacteria has made a negative image of bacteria in our mind and we, the humans, have done a lot of research to understand the structure of bacteria. Here we will tell you how a bacteria cell is different from human cell.

Human Cells are well known as eukaryotic cells, while bacteria cells are known as prokaryotic cells.
Nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum are well known membrane-bound compartments with a cell. These tiny parts of cell are known as organelles and they define the property and function of a cell. These organelles are the major factor that differentiate a human cell (eukaryotic cell) from a bacterial cell (prokaryotic cell).

How do Bacterial cells differ from Human cells ?

  • The very basic difference between human cell (eukaryotic cell) and bacterial cell (prokaryotic cell) is that eukaryotic cells have organelles while prokaryotic cells don't have any membrane bound organelles, not even a nucleus. Prokaryotes include two groups: Bacteria and Archaea .
  • Bacterial cells are around 10 times smaller from human cells due to absence of organelles and simpler structure. Eukaryotic cells have a size of 10-100um, while prokaryotic cells are of 1-10um.
  • Bacterial cells are unicellular, so they are complete as a single cell. While human cell (eukaryotic cell) are part of  multicellular organisms which are developed after a long process of evolution.
  • Bacterial cells don't have a true membrane bound DNA inside the nucleus, as human cells have. DNA is the basic component to store the genetic material.
  • Usually bacterial cells have single circular chromosome while human cells have multiple linear chromosomes.
  • Bacterial cells have cell wall made up of mucopeptide or peptidoglycan, while human cells don't have cell wall. Don't get confused with the fact that some eukaryotic cells have cell wall, such as plant cell. Even when a eukaryotic cell has a cell wall, it is made up of cellulose.
  • Bacterial cells have higher metabolic rate, a higher growth rate compared to human cells.
  • Bacterial cells have shorter generation time compared to human cells.

Truth about Supplements to increase your Height

Being taller is a wish of almost every person. Normally we grow till puberty and chances of getting taller after that age are minimal. There are a number of diet supplements in market claiming to grow your height. The advertisements of these diet supplements often show themselves as a magic pill which can make you taller within weeks. Some of them claim themselves as natural ingredients while some claim themselves as hormonal medicines. The truth about these supplements to increase your height is yet to come in this article.

The truth is that no supplement can make you grow taller once you have reached puberty and your bones have stopped growing. You should never take these supplements without consulting a doctor. Those supplements that claim to grow you taller after puberty don't have any solid research and test results to prove that.

How do we grow taller?
If you study the science behind growing taller than you will find that our height is defined by length of our bones. Epiphysis or growth plates are a part of our bones located at their terminal ends. Epiphysis remains soft till puberty and allows long bones to grow further. At the end of puberty phase epiphysis begins to fuse and solidify. Once it has become solid, no further growth is possible. Under normal circumstances girls reach the end of puberty by 18 years and boys by 20 years of age.

Some supplements claim to reverse the solidification of epiphysis to increase your bone size and overall height of a person. But such claims don't have any actual testing behind them.

Growing taller is a wish of every person and this desire often develops after we have attained puberty. Increasing your height is not possible after reaching that age, but some pharma companies utilize that desire to make big profit. They sell placebo in the name of an effective supplement to increase your height. Placebos may not harm you but some manufactures sell some medicines which can disturb the hormonal balance in your body and you may face some serious side effects. So before taking any such supplement it is better to consult your doctor.

FDA has approved a HGH hormone that can be used as a medicine for children experiencing abnormal growth. But this hormone works only till puberty. But some pharma companies sell fake supplements in name of HGH Hormone, despite of knowing the fact that it will not work on adults.

 Food and Drug Administration neither test the ingredients of health supplements nor it regulates any statement mentioned by health supplements for their advertisements. So it is better to check the ingredients list mentioned on the package of such health supplements and know its actual usage itself. In some of them you may find just some natural multivitamin and mineral supplement to improve your overall health and has nothing to do with your height.

You will find a number of online advertisements claiming to grow you taller within 30 to 60 days. So of them publish very inspiring testimonials with photoshop images to prove their claim. So of them even give moneyback guarantee to sell their useless product. Don't fall prey to such things and believe in the fact that your height does not define you. It is your self confidence and your talent that defines you.

Is Human Body made of / for Bacteria !

We usually think that bacteria is harmful but this notion will change after reading this article. If you are reading such information for the very first time then you might be surprised to know that your body is full of bacteria, but some people still think that bacteria harm them. If you really care about your body then you must know about bacteria in detail to keep yourself healthy. A general thinking about bacteria is that they are the disease causing agents for our body. But the truth is that most of the bacteria are good, and only a few percent are bad bacteria which are responsible for causing disease.

Good Bacteria vs Bad Bacteria

Some researchers say that human body have 10 times bacteria than the number of cells in human body. However some new researches has decreased this ratio but still the estimated count of bacterial cells in human body is more than number of human cells. There are 30 trillion human cells in the body of an average human being. Out of them 84% are RBC (Red Blood Cells). A research done at Weizmann Institute in Israel found that there are 39 trillion bacterial cells in body. Fungi, viruses and archaea present in our body are not counted in these bacterial cells. The range of these bacterial cells range from 30 to 50 trillion in different individuals depending on their gender and lifestyle. It simply means that we have got more bacterial cells than our own cells.

This research confirms that our body is host for a large range of bacteria. Usually we think of our body as a single entity, which is complete in itself. But the truth is just opposite. Our body is incomplete if it does not act as a host to numerous other microorganisms. Bacteria is a major part of these microorganisms residing in or body without our knowledge. Our whole body and metabolism is dependent on these bacteria to function properly.

Bacteria digest our Food : Our mouth, stomach, intestine and complete digestive system is full of bacteria and these bacteria are responsible for digesting the food that we eat. We can't get full nutrition in absence of these bacteria.
Bacteria develops Immune System: Our outer skin is full of bacteria and they help in developing immune system. If they are not there from beginning then our immune system can't fight with any invasive harmful bacteria.
Bacteria is first layer of defense: Our outer skin is full of bacteria. More than 200 species of bacteria reside there. They don't let any other harmful bacteria reside on our skin. We get infected with any bad bacteria only if it crosses that first layer of defense, which are good bacteria residing on our skin.

Some bacteria are useful in one organ but harmful in other. Its best example is E-Coli which causes UTI. This bacteria is meant for intestine, but if it migrates to urinary tract then it causes harmful infection. Similarly Staph bacteria resides on our skin without causing any harm, but if it gets inside through any cut or compromised immune system then it may cause infection. Every bacteria in our body is meant for a specific location and has a specific function to perform.
Note: Some studies have shown that those children who are kept in fully sanitized environment are more prone to asthma and other allergies.
So think twice before you have any antibiotic to treat a minor disease. Facts about antibiotics and bacteria

You must have heard that humans are a social being and need good coordination with our friends, relatives and society to live a good life. But what most of us don't know is that we have got a similar population living inside us in the bacterial form and a proper balance among them is necessary to live a healthy life. In reality we are more bacteria than human.
It won't be wrong to say that human body is made up of bacteria and made for bacteria. Some of the bacteria present inside body can't survive outside our body as the environment outside is not suitable for them.

Can you remember your Dream !

People often say that they can't remember what they dreamed about last night except some situations when the dream is either too joyful or a scary nightmare. Even if you can remember a dream just after waking up then most probably you will forget it within a few hours. Chances of remembering dream are more when you get awake in middle of it. Those who study sleep and dreams know the reason why you can't remember all your dreams.

Dreams are meant to be forgotten

On an average we sleep for one-third part of our life. 20% of that time is REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep during which we dream. Everyday we dream at least 5 different dreams. If our brain remembers all those dreams then it will take a lot of memory. Remembering all those dreams can also make it harder for us to distinguish between real memory and dream memory, as sometime dreams revolve around real subjects and circumstances. We are meant to forget dreams only to make our life easier. Sometimes the dreams are either too joyful or too scary and remembering them for long duration can take us away from reality in actual life. Usually we remember only the last dream that we had last night and the chances of forgetting that dream within a few hours are quiet high. The probability of remembering a dream increases if we wake up in middle of it.

Science behind Sleep and Dreams

If you study a little about sleep cycle the then you will come to know that sleep can be put into two main stages: REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep and Non-REM Sleep. Non-REM Sleep can be further partitioned into four different stages. Out of these stages "Stage 4" is the deepest sleep during which we never dream and our body repairs broken tissues and builds bones and muscles. We dream during REM phase and the duration of REM phase increases as the sleep cycle increases and so does the duration of your dreams. So most probably your last dream will be lengthier than other dreams and may take up to 1 hour of your sleep. If you try to remember your last dream within 45 seconds after waking up then most probably you will remember that.
50% sleep time of babies is dedicated to REM sleep, while this duration decreases to 20% in adults. It means that kids dream more than adults. You may notice the kids dreaming by noticing the movement of their eyeball inside their closed eyes, which is easily visible (that is why they call it REM, Rapid Eye Movement). Due to more REM sleep in kids, the probability of remembering a dream increases in them.

The more time we take after REM phase to wake up, the lesser are the chances of remembering that dream. So now you know why we remember some dreams while some we don't. And the dream that we remember is usually the last dream of that sleep.
Creative people do remember their dreams more often. A number of extra ordinary scientists have have accidentally made some discoveries through their dreams.

Strongest Muscles in Human Body

Muscles are something that makes us feel stronger. But which muscle in human body is strongest ? But reality is that definition of strength is different for different conditions. Some muscles are strongest in terms of working continuously for longer duration while some muscles are best in giving huge amount of pressure within a few seconds. So based on these different definitions of strength, you will come to know about different powerful muscles in human body in this article. If we declare any one muscle of body as the strongest muscle then it would be injustice to more than 800 other muscles.

We collected a list of different muscles whom we can call as strongest muscles of our body. Out of these muscles we can't give the status of number one to a single muscle, as all of them do exceptionally were at their respective places in our body. We can't even think about surviving without any one of them.

Cardiac Muscles: These muscles make the wall of the heart and contract to pump the blood to the whole body. These muscles never rest and stop only when a person dies. They do the hardest work in body and never get tired. 2 ounces (71 grams) of blood is pumped in every heart beat. It means daily 2,500 gallons (9,450 liters) of blood is pumped. Cardiac muscles are involuntary and can't be controlled at will.
Masseter Muscle: This  facial muscle helps us in chewing food by exerting pressure on food through our jaw. These muscles help us put pressure of 200 pounds (90.7 kilograms) on the molars and 55 pounds (25 kilograms) on the incisors. This pressure is sufficient to chew any solid food and get the best taste out of it.
External Muscles of Eye: These muscles are best in terms of coordination with our body. We can't see an object properly without these muscles. They help us in maintaining a focus any object either it is still or moving. They even help us in not losing the focus even when your own head moving or shaking. 10,000 coordinated movements are made by these muscles within an hour while reading a book. So you can easily imagine how much stress they bear when you are running or driving. These muscles get tired and need rest in the form of sleep.
Gluteus Maximus: These muscles are inside our hips and the largest muscle in our body. It help us in keeping our posture erect. Without this muscle we can't even think of standing straight and walking upstairs.
Uterus Muscles: These muscles work at the time of delivery of a baby by contracting the muscles of Uterus to push the baby out. Pituitary Gland secrets oxytocin hormone to stimulate contraction of these muscles.
Soleus: This muscle is responsible for walking, running, standing, dancing and making balance. It is also known as the anti-gravity muscle of human body as it works against the force of gravity. It is present in our leg just below the calf muscles(gastrocnemius).
Tongue Muscles: There are many muscles inside our tongue working at different levels. It has got one of the toughest job to do, i.e.pushing the saliva into our digestive system. It also helps in mixing the food while the food is being chewed by our teeth. It works with great coordination with our teeth and never get cut.
Rectus Femoris: This muscle helps in kicking or sprinting. This muscle connects our hips to knees and helps in extending or raising the knee. Injury in this muscle is mostly found only in soccer players due to its over usage.

All of the above muscles are strongest in one or other way. Their sequence in this article has nothing to do with their ranking. You will never want to get any of these muscles hurt in any way in your lifetime.

Whose muscles are better: Athlete or Bodybuilder ?

Health conscious people often compare the body/muscles of an athlete with bodybuilders. The truth is that even professional bodybuilders can't beat the strength of muscles of a professional athlete. The looks of a bodybuilder's muscles might be more fascinating compared to an athlete, but not the strength. Even the best bodybuilder in the world with best leg muscles can't beat Usain Bolt on a racing track.

What makes muscles of an athlete work better than a bodybuilder ?
Muscles of an athlete are trained for strength, while muscles of a bodybuilder are made to look bigger in size. There is a major difference between their body types. More strength in the body of an athlete is a result of better nervous system. Bigger muscles are not a proof of better nervous system functioning behind. More power generated by athlete's muscles is done by both muscles and nerves connected to brain. It would not be wrong to say that real strength lies in your brain. Practice is necessary in both cases, but exercises of a bodybuilder are totally different from athletes. Training programs of an athlete train their nervous system equally with their muscles.

Science behind improving nervous system for more strength

Intense physical activity causes motor unit recruitment to increase the strength. Motor Units (motor neurons connected to muscle fibers) make our muscles contract by bringing the electrical signal sent by brain from spinal cord to muscle fiber. Motor Unit Recruitment is activation of more motor units. Intense physical activity activates more motor units and thus increases the strength of contraction of muscles.

Our brain fires electrical impulses to motor units to contract a muscle. The strength of contraction depends on two factors.
  • How many muscle fibers are connected to each motor unit.
  • How fast is the firing rate of electrical impulse sent fro brain to motor unit.

Regular intense physical activity increases both of these factors. It increases the strength of contraction by 2 to 4 times. 
When we exercise regularly our brain get used to increased blood supply and adapts the ability to turning some genes ON and OFF as per need of body at that time. When we exercise our body take that moment as a moment of stress, due to increase of blood pressure and breathing (as if we are fighting or fleeing from some enemy). To protect our brain from this stress a protein called BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor) is released, which empowers our memory neurons.
So in more easy terms you can say that exercise or intense physical activity not only increases your muscle size but also improves your memory and ability of your nervous system to contract your existing muscles with more power.

Athlete versus Bodybuilder

After reading all of the above content you will believe it if we say that size has nothing to do with actual strength.
  • Body of a professional sportsperson is trained to use its muscles with speed and strength. While the body of a bodybuilder is trained to show how much it can pump .
  • No matter how big are muscles of bodybuilder, they can't push the body to attain the speed of an athlete. It is due to lesser motor unit recruitment, which empowers the nerves behind the muscles to show more strength at a certain time.
  • The coordination between different body muscles is better in athletes/sportsperson. Even eye's coordination with other body parts is better in them.
  • Muscles of a bodybuilder may be bigger but their flexibility is lesser that a sportsman. 
  • Muscles of an athlete can bear more burden for a longer duration. Again it is due to better nervous system functioning behind.
If you understand the difference between exercises of Athlete and Bodybuilder, then you will be better able to know why athlete's muscles work better in certain sports while the bodybuilder's bigger muscles can't do that.

Do you think that Bodybuilding makes you stronger ?

If you use to think that bodybuilding makes you stronger, then you might be wrong. A recent research which compared the muscles and power of bodybuilders with some physically active men, found that both have same amount of power in their muscles. However the size of muscles of bodybuilders is larger comparatively but it has nothing to do with actual strength. Sometimes a physically active person with lesser muscle size may be more powerful than a body builder who just looks more powerful.

Bodybuilding increases Size not Strength

If you understand the science behind bodybuilding you will understand that it is an art to make your muscles bigger and make them look better in a desired shape. But the real strength lies behind muscles, i.e. you nervous system. The mechanism of strength lies in your brain and nervous system. Improving this mechanism is not an objective of bodybuilding. However some strength increases in bodybuilding but that improvement is not as much as it appears.

Science behind increasing Muscles Size

There are three types of muscles: cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscles are located at heart and they are involuntary muscles (that we can't control at will). Smooth muscles are located in walls of hollow visceral organs. Skeletal Muscles are connected to out skeleton and allow us to move different body parts. Skeletal muscles are the main muscles that we target in body building. If we keep these muscles under tension for longer duration then their size increases with time. Some strength also increases with it. But real strength lies in the our nervous system and there are different ways to improve and strengthen your nervous system.

How does muscles size increase by body building ?
When we exercise our muscles consume instant energy called ATP and demand more energy/glucose from body. To provide that energy and oxygen, our breathing and pulse rate increases. But still due to insufficient oxygen, lactic acid is released in muscles which makes tiny tears in muscles and we start feeling pain. These small tears in muscles are repaired by body during resting phase and they grow bigger and stronger. The key to growing muscles bigger lies in keeping your muscles under tension for longer duration, which can done by using lesser weight with more repetition. The weight should go up and come down in a controlled way to fulfill this objective. Proper amount of rest is also necessary to give adequate amount of time to let the muscles heal and grow. 

The motive of this article is not to demotivate you from body building. Body building makes you look better than before and it is better than sitting idle and being overweight. It is a good way to burn calories and living a healthy life. It can make you look like a superhero but in reality it doesn't mean that you will be able to lift weight like power lifters. Body building and weight lifting are two different things and its better to understand them if you want to make anyone of them your career.

Kidney Disease Stages and Symptoms with Life Expectancy

Kidney Disease is a condition when one or both kidneys face certain lack of efficiency in filtering the blood. Kidney Disease is also know by names such as CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) or Chronic Renal Failure. It can happen due to various other medical conditions over a large period of time. Sometime some medicine meant to treat other diseases can put harm to kidney function as a side effect. The damage to kidneys can be put into 5 different stages. Different stages of Kidney disease have different symptoms and stage 5 is considered as worst where life expectancy is greatly reduced.

Usually Kidney Failure doesn't happen at once. It happens in different stages as the condition worsens. Symptoms of different stages are different and symptoms worsens as the stage of Kidney Disease increase.

Kidney Disease Stage 1 and 2 Symptoms

Stage 1 and 2 of Kidney Disease are generally considered as early stages, hence the symptoms are generally mild and not noticed as something serious. People often take them as symptom of some other disease. During first 2 stages of Kidney Disease, the efficiency of Kidneys may get reduced to just 50%. Some symptoms of Kidney Disease Stage 1 and 2 are:
  • There are no physical symptoms in these stages.
  • Heavy Proteinuria: It means proteins from blood leak into urine due to damaged filters in kidney. It makes the urine more foamy. However this symptoms can also occur due to some other diseases and drugs as well.
  • Blood in Urine: This symptom can also occur in some other diseases like UTI.
  • In some cases blood pressure may also rise due to Kidney Disease.
  • Anemia may also occur in some rare cases. 

Kidney Disease Stage 3 and 4 Symptoms

During Stage 3 and 4 the efficiency of kidneys get reduced to just 30%. 
  • Tiredness and fatigue are common in these stages.
  • Physical symptoms like puffiness around eyes, swelling in hands, feet and ankles.
  • Back pain can be felt in lower back on either side.
  • Color, amount and frequency of urination will change.
  • Eating pattern changes naturally and food starts tasting funny.
  • Blood Pressure remains elevated.
  • Serum creatinine will be higher in these stages, which can be found by blood tests.

Kidney Disease Stage 5 Symptoms

Stage 5 of Kidney Disease is End-Stage and also known as Kidney Failure or Renal Failure. In this stage the kidney function is reduced to just 10 to 15%. Symptoms become severe and doctors often recommend dialysis and kidney transplant. Symptoms of Stage 5 of Kidney Disease include symptoms of all previous stages and some more symptoms listed here:
  • Headache
  • Lower mental alertness / Confusion
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Decreased urine output. However in some cases urine output increase, but that urine is more like plain water and no body wastes are expelled through it.
  • Itching in Skin and Eyes
  • Skin color changes to grayish or yellowish complexion.
  • Swelling and puffiness increases more than previous stages.

Kidney Disease and Life Expectancy

Life expectancy is not an issue in first 4 stages of Kidney Disease, if proper treatment and lifestyle changes are adopted by the patient. But if the patient has entered stage 5 of Kidney Disease then life span may get reduced. As stated earlier that stage 5 is considered as end stage in which both kidneys have almost failed and the only option left is either dialysis or transplant. Life Expectancy of those who undergo dialysis also depends on other medical conditions they are suffering from. The average life expectancy of patients on dialysis is 5 to 10 years, if they continue to have dialysis as suggested by their specialist. However some patients have lived for 20 to 30 years on dialysis. If a person decides to not to undergo dialysis then life expectancy reduces to just a few weeks.

What causes Kidney Disease and How to Prevent it

Kidney Disease is a medical condition in which the patient faces gradual loss of kidney function. Symptoms of this disease are often not understood and the person keeps living the same life without any treatment. He/she knows that only when Kidney Failure has happened in the final stages of this disease. At that moment doctors either recommend dialysis or kidney transplant. To prevent such things from happening it is better to take care of your health and get some knowledge about the causes of Kidney Disease and how you can prevent it from happening.

What causes Kidney Disease ?

  • High Blood Pressure and Diabetes are themselves responsible for more than 60% cases of Kidney Disease.
  • High Blood Pressure against the arterial walls affect the functioning of Kidney. Blood Pressure is a factor that helps kidneys in filtration of blood. Excess pressure of blood in kidneys reduces their working capability.
  • High Blood Sugar level in Diabetes damages different organs including Kidneys due to neuropathy and atherosclerosis. Neuropathy is damage of nerves due to high blood sugar, which can affect most of the organs but kidney and eyes are most prone to it. Atherosclerosis is damage to arteries due to blood sugar, which can affect kidneys very badly if the sugar level remains high for long duration.
  • Some medicines used to treat other diseases like hypertension, cancer and AIDS can cause Kidney Disease especially when you ignore the side effects of these medicines. 25% of all kidney failure cases can be attributed to such medicines.
  • Stones in kidney can also damage the filtering units of kidney, which is a major reason of Kidney Disease in kidney stone patients.
  • Repeated Urinary Track Infections can sometimes lead the bacteria to Kidneys which can damage the and cause Kidney Disease.
  • In some babies urinary track is not wide enough, which exerts pressure on kidneys and cause kidney damage.
  • Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disease in which large cysts are formed in kidneys which damages the surrounding tissues.
  • Enlarged prostate gland in men can obstruct the urinary track and cause kidney disease.
  • Inflammation can occur in kidney due to Glomerulonephritis (a group of diseases). It injures glomeruli, which is a part of kidney that filters the blood. It is the third most popular cause of kidney damage.

How to prevent Kidney Disease ?

Living with a healthy lifestyle can prevent Kidney Disease. All the preventive measures mentioned below are part of a living a healthy life. Just adopting them in life can save you from Kidney Disease.
  • Keep your blood sugar in check. If you have diabetes then you should plan your diet chart accordingly.
  • Always try to keep your resting blood pressure near 120/80 . Low salt and low fat diet can help you with that.
  • Make exercise a regular habit. Spare at least 30 minutes daily for that.
  • Keep your weight according to your height. Being overweight increases your risk of kidney disease.
  • Do not smoke / use tobacco.
  • Limit your alcohol intake.

Note: Kidney Disease can result in Kidney Failure, where both kidneys stop functioning, if you don't treat it on time. Kidney Disease can be undone with lifestyle changes and proper treatment. 

Ibuprofen causing Infertility in Men !

Ibuprofen, which is an over-the-counter medicine and commonly used as pain killer around the globe, is recently described as male fertility killer. Decreasing fertility in humans is becoming a topic of concern for scientific community. The latest research was conducted in University of Copenhagen, which suggested that long term usage of Ibuprofen can result in decreased production of male hormone Testosterone. Ibuprofen can reversibly hinder the production of testosterone at both tissue and cellular levels by testicular cells.

An earlier research suggested that aspirin, acetaminophen (also known as paracetamol) and ibuprofen affects the testicles of male babies inside the mother's womb if she is taking them while pregnant. Ibuprofen has the strongest effect, out the above mentioned three medicines. This research inspired researchers in University of Copenhagen to target their research on effect of Ibuprofen on adults. Testicles are not only responsible for sperm production but also for testosterone hormone production. Testosterone is responsible for all manly things in man like muscles and fertility. Ibuprofen is not only used by common man. Athletes and sportsperson also use it as a pain killer, for whom testosterone means a lot.

Shall i totally stop taking Ibuprofen ?
No, the negative effect is only if you take it continuously for longer duration. So if you need to take it for more than three days then you must consult your doctor. A number of other researches will be conducted on the same topic to cross check the results. But still if you have any fear in using it then you may ask your doctor to prescribe some alternate pain killer.

The younger participants in the research who took Ibuprofen for a shorter period, the negative effect can be reversed. But those who are above 40 and taking Ibuprofen for a long time should worry.

Some facts to open your eyes about increasing infertility in human race.

  • 15% of all couples around the globe in 2010 were infertile.
  • Sperm counts of men in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand declined by 59% from 1971 to 2011.

Nobody know the exact cause of this increasing infertility. But there is something wrong either with what we eat or what we use to protect ourselves from some diseases. Drugs are often known for their side-effects, which is never mentioned when they are prescribed. Even the manufacturers of these drugs don't print anything about the side effects. Usually medicines are not tested for their effect on the reproductive system of humans. But now the time has come to make some changes. Increasing user awareness can make the difference.
The results of this research has opened the eyes of a number of people as Ibuprofen is the most widely used pain killer around the world.

Record for Highest Blood Pressure

Sometimes some blood pressure machines show such high readings which are not meant to believe. People often recheck their BP again on the same machine to verify it. But the best way is to get it checked on some other machine or get it checked at a medical clinic. Sometimes the BP Machines at home show incorrect readings either due to fault in equipment or incorrect measuring technique. We all know that blood pressure rises whenever we do some physical work. But there is always a limit, up to which your blood pressure will rise. Have you ever wondered about the the highest ever recorded blood pressure of a man or woman.

If you are going to find the record for highest blood pressure then it can be put into two categories.

  • While the subject is in resting position for sometime.
  • While the subject is doing extreme physical work.

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Usually the blood pressure is measured in resting position except when you are going through cardio. If you measure the BP of a healthy man, who is running on a treadmill then the readings will be much higher. Usually the upper reading (systolic blood pressure) is affected by exercise. Diastolic BP is usually not affected as it is the pressure on arterial walls when heart is not beating. During exercise systolic BP readings may increase from 120 mmHg to 200 mmHg, and still it is considered normal. Holding your breath during heavy lifting (which is often done by heavy weight lifters) may increase your blood pressure to dangerous levels of 480/350, which can sometimes be life threatening. Regular exercise and endurance training can decrease your resting blood pressure and it may remain lower than normal in daily life.

Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)
MHR = 220 - Age
It means that a 35 year old person can achieve a heart rate of 185 (220-35) while exercising. It is recommended that you should stay between 55% to 85% of your MHR to get best from your exercises. Targeting for your 100% MHR can result is too high blood pressure, which might be risky.

Record for Highest ever Blood Pressure recorded

Resting blood pressure rises only during medical conditions. Rising of diastolic blood pressure is considered more harmful than systolic. Blood pressure level of 180/110 while resting is considered dangerous and medical attention is necessary in such condition. While searching for a record of highest ever blood pressure recorded, we found nothing like that as it is nothing to be proud of. Instead it is a serious medical condition which should be treated as soon as possible with proper medical care. We came across a number of comments on different websites where users told that their BP rose to readings like 234/136. Record levels of blood pressure are often found in patients of stroke and heart attack.
If you ever found any high blood pressure readings, then you may write about it in the comments section below.

Some Medicines cause Acute Kidney Failure

Yes, you heard it right. Some medicines which are used to treat other medical conditions may result in Acute Kidney Failure. If correct treatment is provided at right time then such Acute Kidney Failure is reversible. Some antibiotics, blood pressure medicines, cancer treatment medicines, medical dyes (used in contrast imaging), HIV medicines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ulcer medicines and some illegal drugs (such as heroin) can cause acute kidney failure.

Some common Acute Kidney Failure symptoms are:
  • Decreased Urine Output
  • Fluid retention, that can cause swelling your legs,ankle and feet.
  • Other symptoms like drowsiness, shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, nausea and chest pain are also common in some other diseases.
  • Sometimes there are no visible symptoms but only lab tests can detect kidney failure.

25% of Acute Kidney Failure are attributed to medicines used to treat some other disease. If you ever feel some symptoms of mild kidney failure while taking some medication, then you should discuss it with your doctor.
Some common medicines that are known to cause Acute Kidney Failure are:
  • NSAIDS (Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen, Motrin, Aleve, and Advil. They reduce blood flow to kidneys which can cause Acute Kidney Failure.
  • Diuretics, also known as water pills, changes water balance in body and thus interferes with kidney function. Jardiance (empagliflozin) is a diabetes medicine which also have diuretic effect and may cause kidney failure.
  • ACE Inhibitors (such as Lisinopril, Enalaril, and Ramipril) are usually used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. Names of these medicines usually end with "-il".
  • Chemotherapy medicines used for cancer treatment such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and methotrexate.
  • Some antibiotics cause swelling in kidney and cause kidney failure.
  • Apart from the above mentioned medicines there are numerous others that can cause kidney damage. Some are them are used in treatment of AIDS, cancer, osteoporosis, ulcers and numerous other diseases.

The motive of this article is not mean that you should not take the above listed medicines. Most of the above listed medicines are life saving drugs. But proper usage of these drugs and taking them only on doctor's prescription is necessary if you want to save yourself from any such side effect. Almost all medicines have some side effects associated with them. To save yourself from those side effects it is necessary to take them as prescribed by doctor. You should also keep yourself educated about the medicines you are taking on prescription. Even if you take some vitamin and mineral supplement to keep yourself fit, then you make sure that you know all possible outcomes of that medicine.

How Does Cold Weather affect your Blood Pressure and Heart

There was always a relation between heart diseases and cold weather. Older people often complained about high blood pressure and heart related problems during cold weather. Now new researches have found the reason behind connection between winters and hear diseases. Lower temperature not only chills our body but also make some internal changes in our body, which can be easily overcome by a young healthy adult, but an overweight or older person will find difficulty in coping with that. You will understand the factors responsible for that by the time you reach end of this article.

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Effect of cold weather on Blood Pressure

  • Lower temperature narrows the blood vessels and thus blood pressure in increased. It can slightly increase the blood pressure even in healthy human being. 
  • Rise is blood pressure during winters is more common in people above 60. Old age people are more prone to this increase in blood pressure because the elasticity of their blood vessels is very reduced compared to a young person. Narrowing blood vessels during winters and the lower elasticity due to old age results in more increased blood pressure. It puts extra work load on heart.
  • Weight Gain is also common in winters due to reduced physical activity, which can also increase the blood pressure. Not only older people but even young don't want to go outside or doing some physical activity during winters. But our diet is usually increased in winters, which results in increased weight. Increased weight means more body fat, which can also give rise to blood pressure.
  • Those who are already a patient of hypertension, winter brings a more add-on to their blood pressure. So they need to take extra care of their diet and physical activity.
  • Diseases like heart attack and stroke are directly related to blood pressure and heart health. Cases of heart attack and stroke suddenly increase during end of winters. It is because their hearts and blood vessels has taken enough load during winters due to continuous high blood pressure and body weight has also increased during that time.

Precautions necessary to save yourself
To save yourself from the above mentioned negative impacts of cold weather on your blood pressure and heart, you must take some precautionary measures. These measures are must if you are above 60.

  • Wear warm clothes as per the intensity of cold. Proper warmth can save your blood vessels from narrowing.
  • Keep your physical activity  to an optimum level. Heavy weight lifting is also not recommended during extreme winters. Completely abstaining from any regular exercise will also result in increased weight.
  • Balanced diet is also necessary. Keep in mind that your body needs extra food to keep itself warm during winters, but your activity level is also reduced which mean that you will lesser amount of food. So keep these points in mind and decide right amount of food to give you sufficient energy and not letting you increase your weight.

Diabetic Foot Ulcers - Don't Ignore them !

Diabetes in itself is a disease that can give birth to numerous other medical conditions. Diabetic Foot Ulcers are one of them. Cracks in foot of a diabetic person are common due to being overweight and damaged nerves in feet due to high blood sugar. Our feet takes the burden of weight of whole body, so they also demand proper cleaning and good protection through good footwear. Ignorance of feet often cost diabetic people a lot which can be avoided through proper care.

How does Diabetes affect our feet

Neuropathy: It is damaging of nerves which makes us feel sensation in any body part. Diabetes is a major reason behind loosing sensation in feet and wounds often remain unnoticed due to that. They are noticed only when the infection has gone to deeper level.
Lack of blood supply: Legs are one of the farthest areas of our body from our heart. So it takes most to take the blood there and then get it back from there. Atherosclerosis (blockage in arteries) is common in diabetic people which reduces the blood flow to farther regions like feet. It weakens the immune system for feet. Therefore and wound or infection in feet takes longer to heal.
Cracks: Cracks and easily occur in any overweight person, which is common among people with diabetes. If proper treatment is not done for these cracks then they are an open invitation for fungal or bacterial infection. Neuropathy makes these infection remain unnoticed and they are noticed only when they have gone deeper. It becomes harder for such infections to treat due to lack of blood supply in feet.
Foot Ulcers: Diabetic Foot Ulcers are most common under your big toes and the balls of your feet. They are breaking down of skin tissues and layers underneath, which may happen due to some wound or crack. It can affect the feet down to the bones.

Diabetes and Amputations

If you are diabetic you must must read this. Amputation is surgically removing a body part to stop the infection from spreading to other body parts. A number of diabetic people go through amputation of toes, feet and lower leg to treat infections in them. Such infections happen due to improper care of feet, unnoticed wounds, cracks and infections. Such infections often remain unnoticed due to no sensation of pain due to damaged nerves in the exterior skin. They are often noticed when the infection has gone deeper or when it has reached bone. In some extreme cases doctors recommend amputation of that part.

How a Diabetic person should take care of feet ?

This advice is often ignored by some diabetic people and it cost them a lot in some cases. Feet are one of those body parts that a diabetic person should be most concerned. We will tell you how to take proper care of your feet.
  • Inspect and clean your feet daily. It is most important to see any unnoticed cut or wound in your feet. If there is any then get it treated properly.
  • Toenails should be cut and cleaned regularly to avoid any infection.
  • Use a good footwear to give your proper protection and comfort.
  • Keep your blood sugar in check by adopting a healthy lifestyle and balanced diet.
  • Try to keep your weight in check and loose some weight to get off some burden from your feet.
  • Measure your blood sugar and weight at regular intervals and keep a record of them.

Does your religion / culture affect your health ?

Some people think that religion / culture makes us more dependent on god, rather on depending on ourselves, which makes us taking lesser care of our own body and being unhealthy. But some people think in other way and believe that your religion gives you internal peace and makes your mind free from any psychological disease which is a major health benefit. Here we will try to find that which of these theories is more correct and either your religion is just for your social well being or does it also have any impact (positive or negative) on your health.

There are two types of views about God in different religion:

  • The God is there to love you, forgive you and guide you.
  • The God is there to punish you for your bad acts.

Both of these views want the people to do good things, but the way they do it can affect your health. If you always remain in fear of God, then your health will be affected in negative way. While if you decide your acts to get the love and forgiveness of god, then it will affect your health in a positive way. Both of these views affect your mental health, one in positive and one in negative way. But your mental health can very easily impact your physical health as well. A mentally unfit person can't take care of his own body properly.


Some religions make their followers indulge in meditation practices to feel the nature and god itself. The deeper you go into such practices, the more peace you will find. Some meditation practices make you follow some postures, which are itself equivalent to some physical workouts. Such practices even if followed as a part of religion or just as a workout, can give you both mental and physical fitness. Some meditations are known for their good effect in treating some diseases.

Music, Songs and Dance

Music, Songs and Dance are part of some religions and followed with a lot of faith. Music in itself is a healer. Health Benefits of Music are already mentioned by us. Scripts of the religious songs are either to praise the God or to teach some good lessons to the followers, which are itself a better thing for mind. Music and songs have the ability to treat mental illnesses. In some religions some stories are said with music, songs and dance, which increase our concentration and learning skills. Dancing in itself is a good physical workout.

How much you believe in Religion matters !
Some people rely on their religion just for their social life, else they have nothing to do with it. For such people there is no impact of religion on their health. Some people have strong faith on God, but can't spare more than hour per week for their religion and god. The health of such people might get affected by both their religion and their other physical acts. But some people are there who have very strong feelings about their religion and can't eat or live without worshiping their God for even a single day. Such people either have very good health in all aspects or they completely neglect their overall health.

Feeling of being connected with something bigger can sometimes make people do some unbelievable tasks, which shown their mental health. Bu that is possible only if that person know that he has to do that thing and god will help him in his task. So if your religion/culture provides you that positive energy and the ability to believe in yourself, then nothing is better than that.

Believing in your culture or religion does not mean that you can completely forget all other physical activities and God will take care of your body. If there are no physical workout as a part of your religion to make you physically fit, then you must do them separately as an exercise to keep your body in proper shape. Most of the religions can give mental peace but not all of them can make you physically fit. No religion prohibits you from doing a workout. An unfit body can't be of any use for God. So exercise regularly and have faith in your religion and culture to get both mental and physical fitness.